Leadership Transformed 翻译实践报告

来源: 未知 作者:paper 发布时间: 2020-03-26 21:28
论文地区:中国 论文语言:中文 论文类型:英语论文
Introduction The book of Leadership Transformed, written by Dr. Peter Fuda, mainly introduces the understanding of leadership by the author and how an ordinary manager becomes an excellent leader. The book is about 53,000 words. Now the tra
Introduction
The book of Leadership Transformed, written by Dr. Peter Fuda, mainly introduces the understanding of leadership by the author and how an ordinary manager becomes an excellent leader. The book is about 53,000 words. Now the translator has translated the whole book and took the first and second chapters with about 11,000 words for analysis. Many meaningful stories and instances are cited in this book, which help the readers to comprehend the intentions better and make the text interesting. The content of the book is very useful to those who want to help the development of their personal qualities. So the translation has a positive meaning to readers.
According to Peter Newmark's theory of language function and text-typology, literary form of this book belongs to the informative text, which also has the vocative function. This kind of text often contains objective information, case analysis and some opinions of the author and has the characteristics of authenticity and literariness, which requires the translator as well as the writer of this report to ensure the translated version conforms to characteristics of the source text by utilizing some translation strategies and techniques according to the language functions and the text type based on Peter Newmarks9 semantic and communicative translation theory. In the translation, the translator should consider the culture background of the source language, as well as the pragmatic effects of the target language.
This report is divided into five chapters. The first chapter introduces the background of the report, including the introduction of the author and the book, as well as the meaning of this report. The second chapter briefly introduces the theories used in the article which can be regarded as a literature review. Chapter three describes the whole process of translation. Chapter four mainly analyzes some typical translation examples of the book to illustrate how some translation methods are applied during the process of translation under the guidance of Newmark's theories of semantic theory and communicative theory. The fifth chapter is a conclusion of this whole report.
During the whole process, there are many difficulties that need the translator to use various translation methods to solve. Through the guidance of semantic translation and communicative translation, as well as the continuous application of various translation methods and techniques, various difficulties have been solved. The translator has benefited a lot from the process. Translation skills and professional knowledge have been greatly improved. Through theoretical summary and case analysis, the report was successfully completed.
Chapter 1 Description of the Source Text
1.1Brief Introduction to the Author
The author of the book Leadership TransfDrmcd is Dr. Peter Fuda. Dr. Peter Fuda who is an international authority on business and leadership transformation. He holds a doctorate in Business Administration, a Master's degree in Marketing and Management, and a First Class honors degree in History. He has different identities and positions in different organizations and units (Fuda, 2013).
Peter is a management consultant at The Alignment Partnership (TAP). He and his team have studied many cases about the leadership transformation, including 40 published cases and more than 1000 individual cases all over the world, such as MasterCard, CSC, Telstra, Suncorp, and the Hong Kong and Queensland governments and so on. He and his team help these enterprises and personals realize the leadership transformation with more than 90% success rate (Fuda, 2013).
Dr. Peter is a leadership coach, who has enabled leaders, including more than 200 CEOs, on four continents to measurably achieve greatness and increase their leadership effectiveness and performance (Fuda, 2013).
Peter is the first Australian writer who ever published on transformation in the prestigious Harvard Business Review. He has published two bestselling books, Leadership Transformed; How Ordinary Managers Become Extraordinary Leaders. His thought, recorded in the two books has been published on five continents. He is the Executive Producer of the documentary film Beyond the Superhero, licensed to Qantas (Fuda, 2013).
He is a passionate public speaker as well. He delivered thousands of speeches to senior executives. His comments are spread by internet, TV and radio media on four continents (Fuda, 2013).
Peter is an Adjunct Professor of management at Macquarie University. His doctoral research is now required reading at universities from Taiwan to the USA, including at Harvard (Fuda, 2013).
1.2Description ^Leadership Transformed
Dr. Peter Fuda has been studying the leadership for many years. Leadership Transformed gives a clear explanation about how to be an excellent leader from a common manager. The book of Leadership Transformed covers about 530,000 words. It was first published by Amazon Publishing in 2013. Up to now, no part of the book has been reproduced or stored in the retrieval system in any form or in any way (electronic, mechanical, copying, recording or other way) without the explicit written permission of the publisher.
The book includes seven main chapters, and each one symbolizes one aspect of leadership transformation. This report refers to the first two chapters of this book, so here would mainly introduce the first two chapters.
The Fire chapter mainly introduces the motivational forces that initiate and sustain transformation efforts. Peter demonstrates a kind of situation which shows how to release from a sense of fear and urgency to a far more energizing context and of how to motivate this kind of transformation. In this chapter, the writer analyzes the differences between individual level and organizational level or change and presents a four-quadrant matrix that allows readers to plot motivation across each of these dimensions and assess your level of "fuel for the fire.59
The Snowball, as the second chapter, explores the notion of accountability, and the consequent momentum or "snowball effect” that occurs when a critical mass of leaders commits to principles of constructive leadership. Peter Fuda analyzes several aspects of the Snowball, such as how to make the Snowball roll faster, involving more leaders into the process, and how to eliminate the friction generated by leaders who are not committed to the journey. Finally, the reader can find how to create a tightly compacted Snowball by embedding the principles of constructive leadership into organizational systems and structures. At this point, the Snowball turns to be a most powerful force with the potential to overcome all difficulties.
Each of the seven main chapters demonstrates an in-depth explanation of the respective metaphor, its individual parts, and how it may be best used to enhance your leadership effectiveness. The metaphors each promote meaningful reflection and purposeful action in a different way. Each chapter has many stories and wonders of leaders who use these
metaphors to speed up their journey.
1.3Characteristics of Source Text
Leadership Transformed is a training material for leaders or economic and management-major students. Case analysis in the book is based on research and statistics, which is relative objective. But the text also contains the author's ideas and comments on the cases and reflections, which will lead the reader^ thinking. The purpose of this book is to help readers to complete the transformation of leadership, which makes the text have some vocative elements.
Words in Leadership Transformed are simple and easy to understand. There are few complicated and very professional words. Some of sentences have complex structures. There are many clauses in a sentence. The logic of the book is clear and the paragraphs are closely related. However, the chapters are independent of each other and express different aspects of the content.
The case in the article is objective and accurate. At the same time, a lot of rhetorical devices are used to make the text more cultural. This book is easy to understand and suitable for entry-level people.
Chapter 2 Literature Review
2.1Previous Studies of Peter Newmarks Semantic and Communicative Translation Theories
Translation is based on the text, which is a kind of language transformation (Nida, 1993). Newmark9 s theories related to semantic translation and communicative translation have been recognized by most translators and scholars at home and abroad.
In foreign studies, Bassnett (2015) points out that semantic translation and communicative translation are different translation strategies from the perspective of source language and target language. In feet, in translation practice, the text to be translated is varied, and different types of texts have different characteristics and requirements for the translation (Baker, 1992). According to Newmark^ theory, texts can be divided into six types according to the functional correspondence (Newmark, 2001a). For example, expressive text emphasizes on expressive function. The core of this function is the speaker, who uses language to express his own thoughts and opinions regardless of the readers5 feeling. Poetry, speech, fiction, and so on belongs to this type (Li Juan, 2016). The core of the informative function of language is the external context, the facts of the topic, the factors beyond the language and so on. These styles include the news article, report, and teaching material. In vocative text, the object of the language is the reader or the reader ship. Before translating this text, the translator should consider the cultural background of the source language and the pragmatic effect of the target language. This kind of text includes the instruction book, the propaganda material, and the popular reading material and so on (Yang Lei, 2014). Therefore, different translation strategies and translation methods are needed when translating different kinds of texts.
The main points of semantic translation are to reproduce the original texfs thought process, to attach importance to the context of the original text, to keep the original author's expression as far as possible, and to retain the original texfs various structural features as much as possible (Newmark, 2001b:39). Semantic translation focuses on the form of the original text and author's original meaning, not on the context of the target language and its expression regardless of the cultural context of the target language. Because semantic translation regards the word of the original as sacred, sometimes there are contradictory, vague and even wrong translations. Semantic translation is usually applicable to literature, scientific and technological literature and other discourse genres that regard the original language as important as the content. However, it should be pointed out that Newmark himselfbelieves that semantic translation is not a perfect translation model, but a “mean way' between compilation and line-by-line translation in translation practice (Newmark, 2001b).
In communicative translation, translators should be able to make the translation more effective than the original text. Therefore, any excessive increase or decrease of the information in the original text for the purpose of the reader is not necessary for communicative translation. Communicative translation focuses on transmitting information according to the target language, culture and pragmatics, rather than trying to faithfully copy the original text. Translators have greater freedom in communicative translation to interpret the original text, adjust the style, eliminate ambiguity, and even correct the original author's mistakes (Li Xiaoyan, 2018). As the translator wants to achieve a certain communicative purpose and has a specific target audience, the translation he produces is bound to break the limitations of the original text. The stylistic types which could be applied with communicative translation include news reports, textbooks, public announcements and many other non-literary works (Newmark, 2001b).
So when making the relevant analysis, the translator should firstly have a clear understanding about the text style and then classify the text according to the content and language features of the original language.
Many factors in the process of translation, such as the purpose of translation, the essence of the reader and the type of text, are often ignored. Semantic translation and communicative translation proposed by Newmark are translation methods to solve such problems. Newmark argues that translators should decide which translation method to use according to the type of text. In most cases, communicative translation is suitable for informative and vocative texts, while semantic translation is suitable for expressive texts (Li Jiaojiao, 2017).
According to Tan Jianfeng and his partner's understanding of Newmark's theory, the core of expressive text is to express the original author's ideas, without considering the response of the readers (Tan Jianfeng, He Fengsan, & Zhang Yanyu, 2010). When translating this kind of text, "'semantic translatiorT strategy is appropriate to apply for. The core of vocative text is to call for readers to think and to react. Communicative translation, which
can not only transmit the source text information, but also be in line with the characteristics of Chinese language, is suitable for that type of text. For the informative text, the keys of the translation are information transmission and information authenticity. Semantic translation and communicative translation are necessary to apply, and then the target text readers can clearly understand and grasp the contents of the source text (Tan Jianfeng, 2010).
2.2Application of Newmark5s Translation Theories in the Practice
This translation practice mainly applies Peter Newmark's theory and his translation methods. Based on the Text Typology of Newmark, the text of the source language is informative text with some vocative function. Information text refers to a kind of text types which is used to record all kinds of information. This book, as a teaching material, expresses the author's intention through a rich case and data study. The authenticity, accuracy and standardization on information are the main features of informative text (Xing Yue, Zhang Sijie, 2009).
Correspondence to the informative function, delivering true and accurate information is the core of this text type (Tang Jie, 2016). The language of the informative text is simple and objective. The author only transmits the information with few personal feelings. For the translation of informative text, the translator should put the reader^ understanding and response in the first place, that is to say, to pay attention to the effect of information transmission, accurate and true to transmit information is very important (Wang Jing,2018).
Compared with previous studies, this report divides the translation methods and skills under the guidance of Newmark5 s theories into three categories according to the different emphasis on the source language and the translated language, that are, semantic translation, communicative translation and the integration of the two.
For the type of text, the translator used different translation skills by semantic translation and communicative translation to carry on the analysis. Translation techniques and methods are divided into different types, including word-for-word equivalence, syntactic linearity, conversion, division, adaption, restructuring, idiomatic translation, and so on. Semantic translation mainly focuses on maintaining the language style of the source language, so word-for-word translation, and syntactic linearity can belong to semantic translation skills as a whole. Communicative translation mainly focuses on readers9
understanding and domestication. Conversion, free translation and idiomatic translation can meet the effect of flexible translation. However, in different texts, the two approaches complement each other, so the flexible combination of the two methods is also very meaningful.
Before translating, the translator should learn these various skills seriously. In the process of translation, various techniques should be applied flexibly, and the translation should be classified according to the different methods.
Chapter 3 Description of Translation Procedures
This chapter is organized with three parts, the preparation, translation, and the posttranslation proofreading.
3.1 Preparation before Translation
Leadership Transformed is one of the two books of Dr. Peter Fuda. Because of the limitation of the copyright, this book is not allowed to spread by other means but the Amazon. So until now, this book still keeps its original language edition. No comments can help the translation. The translator had to read this book many times and thought about the translation again and again so as to grasp the core of the translation.
The book, Leadership Transformed, is more than 53,000 words. So the translator has translated the first two chapters, which are more than 11000 words. In order to finish the translation work more smoothly and according to the translation schedule, in the first 7 days of the practice, translator has already read the whole book in order to have a specific understanding of the content. Then, the translator used two weeks to complete the first draft of the translation, which means that the translator finished more than 700 words translation every day. After that, the proofreader was a significant role, and the translator also asked classmates for some suggestions about how to make the translation better.
The work of translation is a whole and coherent behavior, different from language transformation word for word and sentence for sentence. Macro grasp of the whole project helped the translator develop guidelines for the project. Reading the whole text to comprehend the general structure of book was the first step for the translator. Translator needs to grasp the structure of the book after the first reading. In this process, the translator understood what the theme of this article is. This book is about the management and leadership. The translation can be made around the subject only if there is a whole understanding of the article. The translator made an outline of this text to help enlighten the subject.
Analyzing the text type of the source language was the second step for the translaton. To read the book again to help the translator understand the gist and core of source text, the same as the logical relation among every chapter, is necessary. The translator understood and analyzed the detail information of the text. Details of the text, such as the words or the concepts, should be paid more attention to at that time. This is a reading material of management training class. Related case analysis in the book is the result that research and statistics based on the relatively objective. As a training text, this book needs readers to learn related ideas and methods showed in the book. Through the summary and reflection on the stories, the author of this book wants relevant readers to complete the leadership transition and achieve learning and entertainment purposes.
Diction and structure of the sentences are the last step of the analysis. The translated version should not only maintain the original language features, but conform to the target language habits. So preparation was essential to the translation and the report.
3.2Transferring the Source Text into Chinese
The translator began with the first translation of this text. For the problems and difficulties, the translator has found a correct way to solve them. In the process of translation, the translator needs to check the internet or consult and discuss with others. All in all, the translator should try his best to finish the first draft of translation.
In the process of translation, we should not only pay attention to the characteristics and styles of the source text, but also express the meaning of the author. Given these factors, the translator adopted a combination of different translation methods to achieve the balance of translation effects. In dealing with the relevant statements, to emphasize the expression of the source language, semantic translation should be applied. At the same time, the language features and language habits of the target language should also be taken into account to help readers easily accept, so communicative translation can help.
During the translation, the translator downloaded some useful translation applications such as Transmate, Kingsoft Powerword, Winkepedia and terminology database about management and leadership. The translator also used some professional dictionaries, including Longman Dictionary and Oxford Advanced Learner^ English-Chinese Dictionary. These tools helped the translator not only look up some words quickly and accurately, but also search some unknown and important information on the internet.
3.3Post-translation Proofreading
In order to make the translation more accurate, the translator has been asking other professional translators to help with it. More attention should be paid on choices of words, the accuracy of sentences, grammar, structure and the type of writing. The translator got a lot of valuable advice to improve the quality of the translation.
Chapter 4 Case Analysis
Based on the Text Typology ofNewmark, the text of the source language is informative text with some vocative function. The informative function of this text requires the translation simple and objective, and the version accurate and clear. Meanwhile, the vocative function requires the expression version to arise reader^ emotional response, so that the readers can learn the skills that the Leadership Transformed wants to show.
In the translation practice, translation of a text cannot be consistent with only one translation method, the same as the translation of Leadership Transformed. Newmark put forward semantic translation and communicative translation. Semantic translation which put much emphasis on the source language can be used by word-for-word equivalence and syntactic linearity that also belongs to literal translation. Communicative translation which highlights the importance of the target language can be utilized by the technics and skills such as conversion, division, adaption, idiomatic translation, and so on. (Munday, 2001)
4.1Translation Techniques Based on Semantic Translation
According to Newmark's explanation, semantic translation requires the translator to attempt to reproduce the exact context meaning of the original author only in the limit of the method and meaning of the target sentence (Ding Ning, 2018). So semantic translation needs the translator to copy the original text according to the expression habits of the target language. Word-for-word equivalence and syntactic linearity of the literal translation can be regarded as the expression form of semantic translation. In translating Leader Transformed. some objective and descriptive sentences can be translated in this way.
4.1.1Word-for-word Equivalence
At the level of words for literal translation, word-for-word equivalence applies to simple sentences. Grammars and structures need not be considered. Translator only translates the source sentences word by word. In this case, the expression of the target text can also be accepted by the reader. In Leadership Transformed, there are many simple sentences that can be translated in such direct way.
Word-for-word Equivalence may be so simple that many people do not think it is worth analyzing alone. However, in translation practice, in order to show off their skills, many translators are always used to translating simple words or sentences into very complex ways, which makes people unable to find the original meaning. They often use their subjective understanding or even misunderstand the original author^ ideas for the translation of such conditions. This method is easily ignored, so it is illustrated here as the first item.
Imperative sentence
Example 1:
(ST=source text; TT=target text)
[ST]: Consider Tim's story.
[TT]:看看蒂姆的故事。
[Analysis]:
This title is an imperative sentence organized with the predicate and the object and belongs to the vocative text. This grammatical structure is in complete accordance with the grammatical structure of Chinese. So when these sentences are translated, word-for-word translation can fully express the meaning of the sentences. If the translator adds his own understanding to this sentence, it may be translated it into “让我们来看看蒂姆遭遇了 什 么‘1 This translation has clearly showed my subjective perspective and has concluded that something bad has happened to Tim. However, this is an illustrative story. Through the illustrative characteristics of the original text, the original text only simply narrates a fact and does not need to be judged, so it is inappropriate to translate it with emotional words. Word-for-word equivalence is the best to choose.
Example 2:
[ST]: Reflect on the forces.
[TT]:反思这些力量。
[Analysis]:
This short one is also an imperative sentence organized with the predicate and the object and belongs to the vocative text. In this case, as mentioned in last case, word-for-word equivalence can achieve the meaning. The effect can be reached simply from the meaning of the word whose expression is direct and simple.
Titles
Example 3:
[ST]: Quadrant 1: Organizational Burning Platform
[TT]:象限1:组织的燃烧平台
[Analysis]:
The translation of the title is a typical text for the purpose of message transmission which can be regarded as a kind of informative text. In general, the title will be relatively short, mostly nouns or nominal phrases. The meaning of the title can be clearly expressed by word-for-word translation under the guidance of semantic translation so as to achieve the task of instruction. The translation of this sentence is a literal translation of words. This method is also applied to the translation of other titles in this article which can be utilized by most titles.
Example 4:
[ST]: Fire Matrix
[TT]:火焰矩阵
[Analysis]:
The translation of the title is same as previous one which can be regarded as a kind of informative function. The title is short, organized by two nouns. The meaning of the title can be clearly expressed by word-for-word translation under the guidance of semantic translation. The translation of this sentence is a literal translation of words. Usually "fke” is used to represent passion or motivation, so maybe some people prefer to translate it as "动力矩阵‘1 But the meaning of fire has been explained at the beginning of this chapter so it does not need to repeat it. It is more concise and clear to translate the meaning of the original word directly word for word.
In translating simple sentences, titles, or imperative sentences, most of such texts are informative text for the purpose of transmitting information or explaining explanations. In translating such sentences or phrases, word-for-word translation can not only adapt to Chinese habits, but also present the original text as it is.
4.1.2 Syntactic Linearity
For some of the narrative content of the sentences, which does not contain much pragmatic function and connotation or the grammar is not important, syntactic linearity of literal translation can help the translating. The translator only needs to translate the sentences literally.
Simple sentences
Example 5:
[ST]: At just thirty-three, without a university degree, he had still risen to managing director of an iconic advertising agency—it was like something out of a fairy tale.
[TT]:他刚33岁,也没有大学学位,就已经升任成一个图标广告机构的经理了…这 一切就像在童话故事里一样。
[Analysis]:
This is a narrative sentence, which has informative function. For this sentence, there are not so many pragmatic functions and connotations, so syntactic linearity of literal translation is helpful for the translation. According to the meaning of the original sentence, the translator only needs to translate the sentences literally. All the translations of the phrases correspond to each other without any modification or alteration. However, according to Chinese expressions, the subject is usually at the start position of the sentence, so “他"is put in the front and the others are translated in order as "刚 33 岁,也没有大学学位,就已经 升任成一个图标广告机构的经理了二
Example 6:
[ST]: When Tim spoke, he would struggle to hold prolonged eye contact, and he kept referencing impressive elements of his past as though he were pitching himself to a prospective client.
[TT]:当蒂姆说话的时候,他会努力保持长时间的目光交流,并且总提及一些让人印 象深刻的元素,仿佛在向一个潜在的客户推销自己。
[Analysis]:
This sentence, classified as informative text, describes Tim's performance when he is speaking. In addition, this sentence is concise in meaning, so we also take a literal translation. The original sentence is made up of three small sentences which are clear in meaning and clear in logic. Syntactic linearity can directly express the meaning of the source language clearly. According to the order of the meaning of the original text, the meaning can be expressed very clearly. 66当蒂姆说话的时候” is followed by “他会努力保持长时间的目 光交流"and the others are the same.
Example 7:
[ST]: Somehow he survived the impact and was picked up by a rescue boat just before he would have frozen to death. When asked why he jumped, he replied, “Better probable death than certain death.”
[TT]:不知怎的,他幸存了下来,就在他冻死之前被一艘救援船救起了。当被问到为 什么要跳时,他回答说:“可能会死比肯定会死亡好得多。”
[Analysis]:
This sentence is a description of his state at the time which is also to transmit information to readers to show the condition. Although there is a time adverbial clause in this sentence, the sentences are relatively simple, the meaning is expressed very clearly, and it meets the standard of semantic translation. At the same time, there is no cultural deviation of understanding, so the meaning of the original sentence can be clearly expressed by syntactic linearity of literal translation. The sentence, a 可能会死比肯定会死亡好得多”, also conveys the bad situation and choices in the original text.
Example 8:
[ST]: By Bernie's own admission, nothing ever came easily to him.
[TT]:伯尼自己也承认,对他来说没有什么是容易的。
[Analysis]:
The first half of this sentence is a prepositional phrase, and in Chinese it directly expresses a specific meaning, that is, what he himself acknowledges. In a sense, this sentence belongs to the expressive text, but it does not have much emotional factor. The choice of semantic translation to directly express the meaning of the original text as "伯尼自 己也承 认,对他来说没有什么是容易的” also meets the requirements of the target text. In this case, syntactic linearity is the best choice.
Example 9:
[ST]: But rather than embarking on an exciting new life in a new home with his family,
Bernie found himself working twelve hours a day, day after day.
[TT]:但是,伯尼并没有和家人一起在新家里开始令人兴奋的新生活,而是发现自己 依然过着每天工作12小时,日复一日的旧生活。
[Analysis]:
This sentence is a simple description of Bernie's life changes, belonging to the informative text. The language structure of this sentence is simple and there is no complex grammar. So literal translation can achieve the purpose of translation.
Example 10:
[ST]: In the subsequent months, he successfully led his organization through a tumultuous period in its history; employee commitment, customer satisfaction, and financial performance all rose.
[TT]:在随后的几个月,他带领他的团队成功地度过了其历史上的动荡时期;员工忠 诚度、客户满意度和财务业绩都有所上升。
[Analysis]:
For this sentence, the main purpose of translation is to transmit information. From the functional perspective, this sentence, describing the performance and status ofhis company, belongs to informative text. It is very simple and literal translation is useful to the translation. The long sentence can be divided into two parts: the first part: ignored the adverbial of time, it was a simple sentence which is organized with the subject, the predicate, object and object complement; the second part is organized with the subject and the predicate. There is no special pragmatic meaning in this sentence and the expressions of such simple sentences are consistent with those of Chinese. So syntactic linearity translation is a good way to express sentence meaning clearly.
Sentences with metaphors or special meanings
Example 11:
[ST]: Add some "fUel to your fire" by reflecting on what you really want personally and professionally.
[TT]:在个人素质需求和专业需求上,为自己的“火焰”补充燃料。
[Analysis]:
This imperative sentence is to teach you how to do better, which belongs to vocative text. According to the principle of cultural correspondence, “Add some fuel to your fire” means “火上浇V由"in Chinese as correspondence. Obviously, this translation here is not suitable. The fire in this sentence is only a metaphor, which needs to be translated directly as “为自己的“火焰”补充燃料” to express the meaning of the original text.
Example 12:
[ST]: If you're action oriented or itching to unleash your Snowball, then I suggest you go to www.peteifruda.coir.
[TT]:如果你是行动型或渴望释放你的雪球,那么我建议你登陆www.peteifruda.coiro [Analysis]:
This sentence is a suggestion which belongs to vocative text. According to the usual translation habits, metaphors are directly translated into corresponding images, so a6Snowball,,? as a metaphor, should be translated with the meaning of power as “ 动力” and could not have been translated directly. But in this sentence, “snowball” is used throughout the whole chapter and explained its metaphorical meaning from the beginning. Therefore, literal translation can better maintain the style of the original text. “释放你的雪 球” has made the original text clear regardless of the pragmatic meaning.
Most sentences, no matter what type of text they belong to, can be translated by semantic translation. Because culture and language have something in common to a certain extent, as long as the meaning is clearly described, the purpose of the original expression can be achieved.
4.2Translation Techniques Based on Communicative Translation
Communicative translation is not a simple copy of the content and form of the original text faithfully. Communicative translation puts much emphasis on the information transfer of the language and culture. The premise of communicative translation is to reproduce the same effects of the original readers as much as possible in the target language. This article uses the metaphor to show the ideas. So in the translation, it is necessary to emphasize the pragmatic effect of the original text. Conversion, division, restructuring and idiomatic translation are the reflection of the Communicative translation.
4.2.1Conversion
Due to different grammatical structures and expressions in English and Chinese, the translator converts the structure of the sentence and the logical order flexibly to let the sentence in line with the Chinese expression habits.
Passive voice
Example 13:
[ST]: I was simultaneously energized and overwhelmed by Tim's passion and enthusiasm. [TT]:蒂姆的激情和乐观深深地感染了我,我又变得精力充沛了。
[Analysis]:
This is the translation of a typical passive sentence. The English puts the passive in the end which is just the opposite of Chinese. So in translation, adaption is necessary by converting the passive into the active. So “by Tim's passion and enthusiasm^^ is put in front of the sentence in the translation as "蒂姆的激情和乐观深深地感染了我二 At the same time, the sentence has been split into two small sentences, which makes the translation more flexible.
Example 14:
[ST]: Leaders5 personal ambitions are transcended by the lasting impact they wish to have on their organizations, their customers, their industries, and their communities.
[TT]:领导者希望对其组织、客户、行业和社区产生的持久影响已经超越了他们的个 人雄心。
[Analysis]:
In terms of language habits, English is used to using passive voice, which is the opposite of Chinese as used in this sentence. Therefore, during the course of translation, it is necessary to transform the language habits so that the original meaning of the informative text can be better transmitted to the reader. In this sentence, we changed the passive sentence into an active sentence as “影卩向超越了雄心” to show a conversion to meet Chinese expression habit.
Word class
The conversion of word class is also a common skill in translation. We often get nouns as adjectives or adjectives as nouns, etc.
Example 15:
[ST]: The Company was the clear market bader, but its market share had slowly declined for ten years; a series of aggressive new entrants into the marketplace had begun to leave their mark.
[TT]:该公司明显是市场的领导者,但它的市场份额己经缓慢下降了 10年;后续的一 系列积极的新进入者也已经开始在市场上留下自己的印记。
[Analysis]:
This sentence is also an information description of the example given and belongs to the informative text. “Clear” is an adjective in the original English sentence, but it was converted into an adverb as “明显地” by the translator in the Chinese version to modify the verb "是” and “地” is omitted in Chinese. In addition, "market” is a noun, but in this sentence, according to the background of the sentence, it refers to adjective to decorate a6leadef, as “市场的二 The change of part of speech of the word "market” makes Chinese language more flexible.
Example 16:
[ST]: They increased revenue tenfold, broke the monopoly many considered unbreakable, and her company is now acknowledged as the industry benchmark.
[TT]:两家公司的收入增加了十倍,打破了许多人认为的不可打破的垄断,她的公司 现在被公认为是行业内的标杆。
[Analysis]:
This sentence is also the text of the informative type. "Industry” is noun, but in this sentence, according to the background of the sentence, it refers to adjective meaning to decorate "benchmark". So “Industiy” is translated into “行业内的The conversion of the the word makes the Chinese expression more clear and consistent with the logic
4.2.2Restructuring
Adverbial clauses are often placed at the end of the main sentence in English, which is contrary to the Chinese habit. Therefore, when translating English sentences with clauses, it is necessary to adjust the language structure so that the expression is more in line with the target language habits.
Example 17:
[ST]: For Clynton一and most of the other leaders you'll meet in these pages—there was a clear moment in their joumeys when the Snowball was well and truly set in motion.
[TT]:对于克莱顿,或是在本章中遇到的大多数其他领导人来说,在他们的旅程中,当
“雪球”己经完好并且己列在动议计划中时,这个时刻变得清晰。
[Analysis]:
This is a statement sentence which contains a time adverbial clause guided by "when" or others. This sentence belongs to the informative text, whose language habits are different from those in Chinese. According to the principle of Newmark's communicative translation method, the adverbial is advanced and the subject sentence is after the adverbial, which is more in line with the Chinese habit, the clause "when the Snowball was well and truly set in motion^^ is forward as u在他们的旅程中,当“雪球”已经完好并且已列在动议计划中 时二
Example 18:
[ST]: This point of no return came when they openly acknowledged their shortcomings and flaws, and made a public declaration to others regarding their desire to change.
[TT]:当他们公开承认自己的缺点和缺陷,并向其他人公开声明他们想要改变的时候, 他们就没有回头路了。
[Analysis]:
This is a statement sentence which also contains an adverbial clause guided by "when”. This sentence belongs to the expressive text. According to the principle of adaptability in Newmark5 s communicative translation method, to make sure the reader has a good understanding and to emphasize the target language, the adverbial is advanced and the subject sentence is after the adverbial, which is in line with the Chinese habit.
4.2.3Division
The division is to split a long and complex sentence into several shorter and simpler sentences. Thus, the expression of Chinese can be changed into short sentences according to the group of intent.
Example 19:
[ST]: It derives from a real-life tragedy that occurred on July 6, 1988, on the Piper Alpha oil platform in the North Sea, when 167 men lost their lives.
[TT]:它来源于一个真实的悲剧。1988年7月6日,在位于北海的派钳阿尔法石油平 台上,有167人失去了生命。
[Analysis]:
This sentence is a description of an event, which belongs to the type of informative text. According to the grammatical structure and language habits of China, Chinese used to use short sentences. Therefore, during the course of translation, the original long sentence can be split into two parts according to the meaning group. The first part is "It derives from a real-life tragedy^. The second part is the description of this tragedy. This kind of dividing is usually used in such situation.
Example 20:
[ST]: His renewed sense of personal ambition gave him clarity on the type of impact he would need to have on his team and organization in order to achieve his ambition.
[TT]:他对个人雄心的重新认识,使他清楚地了解了他需要对团队和组织产生什么样 的影响,以实现他的雄心壮志。
[Analysis]:
There are many long sentences in English, which are rarely seen in Chinese. So when we translate such a long sentence, we usually split it into a few short sentences. Just as this sentence, a simple but a long compound sentence, this sentence is divided into three clauses according to the meaning group in translation to express the original meaning clearly through Chinese.
English and Chinese belong to different language families and have their own grammatical habits. There are many explanatory explanations in informative texts, and professional sentences are basically passive or compound sentences. Division and conversion are used to transform this language and grammar habits.
4.2.4Idiomatic Translation
For some sentences with cultural elements, the translator can find an idiomatic expression in the target language to correspond to the source language. Under this circumstance, the translator only needs to use the Chinese fixed expression to replace the expression of the source language.
Example 21:
[ST]: He looked like the pictures I had seen of the dashing race-car drivers of the fifties; a handsome middle-aged British gentleman showing just the right amount of wear and tear.
[TT]:他看起来像一个五十年代的赛车手,就像我照片中见过的那样;成熟稳重活脱 一个风度翩翩的英国中年绅士。
[Analysis]:
An idiomatic expression in the target language is different from the source language although they may mean the same. Just like in this sentence, “the right amount of wear and tear^ in English means damaged. But this sentence shows the man has experienced so much and become mature. There is an idiom in Chinese, “成熟稳重Therefore, in translation, according to the same meaning and different expressions, idiomatic translation mathod, using the Chinese fixed expression to replace the expression of the source language, is used correctly.
Example 22:
[ST]: Christine was the highly articulate and ambitious CEO of a credit reporting and debt collection company一a very macho industry.
[TT]:作为首席执行官克莉丝汀能言善辩又雄心勃勃,她就任于信用报告和债物催收 公司,这个行业很具挑战性。
[Analysis]:
“Highly articulate” means to describe a person who is very good at talking. This phrase has corresponding cultural words in Chinese, which is “能说会道” so the first version was translated as “克莉丝汀是个能说会道的雄心勃勃的首席执行官二But articulate is an advanced word that cannot be described in colloquial language. Choosing the advanced words in readers9 own culture to translate can better reflect the principles of communication. So in this sentence, "highly articulate^^ is translated into "能言善辩‘1
Example 23:
[ST]: He5d wanted to follow in the footsteps of his fhther, the CEO and chairman of a large British manufacturing company.
[TT]:他的父亲就是首席执行官和一家大型英国制造公司主席,他想子承父业。
[Analysis]:
In this sentence, the direct meaning of "follow in the footsteps of his father” is to step on the footprints of his father for which it is translated as "跟随他父亲的脚步‘I But the corresponding meaning in Chinese is to be the same as his father. So using Idiomatic Translation to translate directly into "子承父业” is the best way to translate it.
Example 24:
[ST]: He reeled off stories about the “rottweilers” in reception who made guests feel unwelcome, and parking-lot antics where staff fearfully moved their cars if the boss parked next to them so that he wouldn't know what time they went home.
[TT]:他滔滔不绝地讲述了接待处的“酒鬼”让客人感到不受欢迎的故事,还有停车 场里的滑稽动作,如果老板把车停在旁边,他就会害怕地把车挪开,这样他就 不知道他们什么时候回家了。
[Analysis]:
"Rottweilers” in English is a kind of dog whose Chinese name is “罗特韦尔犬‘1 Obviously, thafs not what the word means in this sentence. According to the context, the word should mean an alcoholic here. According to idiomatic translation, to choose the words corresponding to culture is more suitable.
Example 25:
[ST]: Under enormous pressure and scrutiny, it soon became apparent to Tim that he might have reached the limits of his natural toolset.
[TT]:在巨大的压力和严格的监督下,蒂姆很快就意识到他可能已经到他能力的极限 了。
[Analysis]:
The Chinese corresponding to "toolset" in the original text means "工具集”,However, in translating, we should consider the meaning of the original expression to find a suitable Chinese expression to replace the original meaning. “His natural toolsef, is an English slang, which refers to the individual's ability, according to idiomatic translation, it could be translated as "能力:
The expression of the same meaning is different in different cultures and languages. In particular, some slang choices of different images can lead to misunderstandings. The use of idiomatic translation will help the cultural transformation and achieve the purpose of communicative translation which is particularly common in vocative text.
4.3Integration of Semantic Translation and Commutative Translation
The use of semantic translation and communicative translation is not absolutely independent. These two translation methods can be used interchangeably. If the original statement of the information, without cultural characteristics, is universal, the content and expression of the information are equally important, and the readers5 knowledge and interest correspondence with original readers, the translator can use semantic translation and communicative translation at the same time. This kind of translation is the most ideal one, because this condition satisfies the need of the original author and the translator.
Facing informative text, semantic translation and communicative translation should be applied in the target language. In the process of translation, semantic translation makes translated text more faithful to the style and form of source text. Communicative translation makes the target language more fluent and natural. Considering the vocative function of the language in this book, these translation strategies and methods should be used harmoniously, which will be a great challenge and chance for the translator to consolidate his translation skills. The translator aims to deepen the ability to use the translation strategies in practice.
4.3.1 Syntactic Linearity Plus Division
Example 26:
[ST]: Beyond the burning platform/ burning ambition dichotomy, there is an additional nuance to the Fire metaphor that became starkly evident in our research: a leader5 s motivation is most powerful when it encompasses both organizational and individual imperatives for change.
[TT]:除了燃烧的平台和燃烧的雄心这样的二分法,火焰隐喻还有一个额外的小差别, 这在我们的研究中也是显而易见的:当组织目标和个人目标都为追求这种改变 时,领导者动机的能量也是最强大的。
[Analysis]:
This sentence describes the author's theory which belongs to the informative text. It is a long and complex one. In dealing with such kind of sentences, a single translation method is not enough to make translation accurate. At this time, integration of semantic translation and commutative translation is useful and helpful and syntactic linearity plus cutting is suitable. First of all, according to Chinese habits and the commutative translation principle, the long sentences of English are broken up into phrases of independent meaning, so we divide "there is an additional nuance to the Fire metaphor that became starkly evident in our research^^ into two parts during the course of translation. Then, according to the semantic translation principle, faithful translation is applied. The first part it translated as “火焰隐喻 还有一个额外的小差别”,and the second part is "这在我们的研究中也是显而易见的二 The translation of others is similar.
Example 27:
[ST]: She knew that the only way to do this was to transform her impact on her organization and become the type of leader who brought out the best in others.
[TT]:她知道,要做到这一点唯一的办法就是改变她对自己的组织的影响,并成为那 种能在其他人身上发挥出最佳效果的领导者。