经济学人文化栏目翻译实践报告

来源: 未知 作者:paper 发布时间: 2020-03-25 18:27
论文地区:中国 论文语言:中文 论文类型:英语论文
全球化的到来,为东西方的频繁交流提供了一个坚实的基础。作为了解世界的工具, 英语承载了中国人了解西方世界的意愿。在中国与西方频繁的交流中,英语新闻是信息 交流的重要
摘要
全球化的到来,为东西方的频繁交流提供了一个坚实的基础。作为了解世界的工具, 英语承载了中国人了解西方世界的意愿。在中国与西方频繁的交流中,英语新闻是信息 交流的重要载体。《经济学人》作为全球知名的新闻杂志,以其文章语言风格幽默灵活, 观点新颖,在全球享受经久不衰的名誉。另外,《经济学人》的订阅有80%来自海外, 具有广泛的受众读者。因此,作者希望通过对《经济学人》中人文类部分文章的翻译不 仅可以带动个人翻译能力的提高,还可以增加对西方人文历史的了解。
本报告是作者在纽马克语义翻译理论和交际翻译理论的指导下,以《经济学人》中 人文类文章为源文完成的翻译实践报告。本报告含有关于本次翻译所应该包含的一切材 料,包括源语言材料选取、译前准备、背景分析、文化词的翻译等。在本次翻译实践中, 笔者以纽马克翻译理论为指导,在翻译过程中采取了增译法和分译法的研究方法,通过 对所翻译文章的探究,有了以下认识:(1)作者在翻译过程中.应当谨慎评估翻译材料, 做好译前准备,并深入了解指导理论;(2)作者在面对文中文化负载词时,应当广泛 求证,力求获得最佳的解释;(3)作者在处理文中专有名词时,应当着重把握归化和 异化的使用,具体问题具体分析。(4)由于英汉两种语言在思维方式和表达方式上的 客观差异,作者在翻译过程中对较为复杂的句子采取了比较灵活的翻译方式,包括:增 译、转换、拆句和重组的方式。
通过本次翻译实践,作者认为经济学人中人文类文章的翻译需要做到以下三点:第 一是双语能力,译者能够掌握源文中语言所包含的大量信息。二是文化因素,在翻译过 程中译者会遇到各种类型的文化负载词,译者在翻译处理的时候要结合语境进行分析。 三是逻辑,译者在翻译过程中应该了解中国读者的需要之处,并能够补全逻辑结构使译 文更加流利。经过本次翻译实践,希望能够给未来经济学人杂志的翻译提供帮助和参考。
Chapter One Introduction
1.1Background of the Task
The material of this report was chosen by the author from The Economist, as a world-renowned magazine, The Economist contains several columns such as Asia, China, America, Business, and Book & arts (as we call it a humanistic column). Unlike economic column, there are no many specific assumptions and economic terms in it. The humanistic column, however, carries more weight in author^ mind. The magazine has displayed a long picture scroll formed by historical figures and stories, and some of them enjoy the fame in the Western world, even as cultural symbols. In author^ viewpoint, the background of this task can be summarized as three points:
Firstly, as an ideal reading material, The Economist has won the interests of a great number of English learners in China. Based on the high user viscosity, it offers us much convenience to promote such translation practice that enables English learners to draw the water from this well, namely,the cultural-loaded words, the usage of verb and benefits after analyzing the long complicated sentences.
Secondly, the craze for going abroad has been getting hotter in China. For many students who want to further their study abroad, culture has been an issue which incapacitates them to communicate with local people. By analyzing and demonstrating the hot humanistic issues that The Economist published, students could easily get the information they need. Furthermore, The Economist bridged the channel between Chinese students and the Western world. Students absorb the cultural connotation that The Economist listed which not only deepens their understanding of the differences between East and West but also helps them to appreciate the core beyond culture.
Thirdly, the key point of a successful report is to remove the linguistic difficulties as much as possible as well as maintaining the original meaning in the text. The author selected semantic translation(ST) theory as the guiding theory to pursue an Equivalence of word-to-word sentence for sentence. Besides, the author uses communicative translation(CT) theory as the instruction to ensure that all humanistic details in The Economist are translated. Therefore, through protracted and unremitting efforts, the CT and ST can be used in humanistic texts.
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1.2Objectives of the Practice and the Report
This translation report is meant to explore a balance between source text and target text, in that case, the author commits himself to provide a direct connection from English to Chinese in the essence of the two texts. Under the direction that the CT and ST theory, the author wishes that readers can obtain a variety of overseas information including literature, politics, religion and history. Furthermore, this translation report explores the possibility of completing a report under the guidance of two major translation theories, in this report, the intention of author is to reveal the concise and explicit feature of news texts. Also, given the complexity of cultural background, the author applied the CT theory to ensure that people who do not know English would gain the same information as the upper middle class in the west read the source texts.
1.3Significance of the Report
With the rapid development of China, the English majors are not the only group who are interested in foreign magazines, also, the fast-growing people from various fields gradually realize the importance of the carrier of overseas information—the serious political and economical magazine. Therefore, based on the current circumstances like this, the significance of the report can be summarized as follows:
(1)Encouragement. The communication of culture is merely the equivalence of word to word but a collide of different cultures. Therefore, mastery of one^ own culture is far from enough to cope with influences from external culture in today5 s world. The author hopes that English researcher would get encouragement by this report to explore something hidden in the depths of Western culture.
(2)Trial. Under the guidance of Newmark^ translation theory, the author has got clear about the direction of source text. According to the research of CNKI, the number of translation report related to The Economist is 69, mainly focusing on the columns of politics, economic and America. As a world-renowned magazine, The Economist carries more weight in Western world than we expected. By analyzing the culture column, we can easily get the latest information of trend of Western society. Thanks to the rapid development of Internet, this is the first time for author to decode the formation of Western spiritual core by translation in a systematic way
In the process of translation, the author has been struck in a great number of barriers that are caused by linguistic features, humanistic traditions and cultural lexical chunks. By
applying the Newmark9s theory, the author has gained rich experience in translating and compiling. This translation experience will no doubt plays a conspicuous role in his translation career.
1.4Structure of the Report
This report is divided into five chapters. The first chapter briefly introduces the background and target of translation. The second chapter introduces the selection of guiding theory. The third chapter states the preparation of the task and the process of the translation, analyzes the writing style and writing characteristics of the original text from the source text, respectively analyze the problems and solutions encountered in the process of translation. The fourth chapter combines Newmark^ semantic translation theory and communicative translation theory, gives some examples in the translation report and analyzes them. The fifth chapter mainly expresses the key findings and deficiencies in this translation practice.
Chapter Two Selection of Guiding Theory
2.1The Semantic Translation
In the book Approaches to Translation, English Translation theorist Peter Newmark has introduced two concepts for the first time: semantic Translation and communicative Translation. He believes that “semantic translation” is the translation that is loyal to the author and fully expresses the original intention of the author,and “communicative translation” is the translation that is loyal to the reader and easy for the reader to accept (Newmark,1981). There are significant differences between semantic translation and communicative translation in terms of translation purpose, translation unit, expression form, language feature, and applicable style. In Newmark9 s opinion, semantic translation tends to be loyal to the source language, while communicative translation tends to be loyal to the target language. The fundamental difference between communicative translation and the semantic translation is that the former emphasizes the effect of information while semantic translation emphasizes the contents of information (Lin Xiaoqin, 1987). Semantic translation refers to reproducing the context meaning of the original text as accurately as possible under the permission of the semantics and syntactic structure of the target language (Yuanhong2003). Under the guidance of semantic translation theory in the process of translating long and complex sentences, the author tries to make the target text close to the source text in the form and keep the original effect as much as possible to give full play to the expressive function of language.
Newmark takes the expressive function of the source text as the standard and divides the source text into three categories. The first is “expressive text”,whose main function is to convey the thoughts and emotions of the author of the source text. Expressive texts can be further divided into three categories: (1) serious and imaginative texts, such as narrative poems, stories, novels and plays; (2) narrative texts written by authorities in certain disciplines, such as political speeches and documents, decrees, legal documents, scientific and technical, philosophical and other professional works; (3) autobiographical works, essays, personal letters, etc. The second is informative text, whose main function is to transmit information. Such texts may cover a variety of topics, such as academic papers, technical terms, popular science readings, art readings, news reports, etc. The third is the persuasion text which is reader-oriented, mainly including all kinds of instructions, publicity texts, advertisements, notice and other persuasion texts. The word persuasiveness refers to evoking the reader to react, think or feel in a way presupposed by the source text(Newmark 1988).
As mentioned above, the semantic translation applies to texts of strong subjectivity. When translating, the target texts have to reach a formal equivalence under the semantic translation theory. Semantic translation theory requires that the target texts approximate the form of the source texts and try to reach the same inner structure and words order of source texts (Ye Zhaocheng, Zhang Jianwei Ye Lingzi,2013). Therefore, In the theory of semantic translation, the translator is still based on the source texts, adhering to the source language culture, and only explains the meaning of the source texts, helping the target language readers understand the meaning of the whole context, so its target text are usually too complex, cumbersome, wordy and too detailed (Jiayu, 2013).
In this translation report, the author has studied the semantic translation theory, in its target text, every corresponding word is reconsidered so as to serve the reader and match source text better.
2.2The Communicative Translation
American scholar Eugene A.Nida has said: it would be easy to translate if meaning is understood(Nida, 1986). If the meaning remains the key solution to a translation, what does the word “meaning” mean? According to British translator Bell’s opinion: Meaning includes cognition, interpersonal communication and textual meaning. In the formal structure of language, there are various components combined to express umeaning,,? and the signal containing communicative value generated by the form of language (Bell, 1991). The British scholar Firth states his opinion in his book A Short History of Linguistic, in which he believes that meaning is the function of language works in contexts (R. H. Robins, 1976). Newmark, a British scholar, is one of the earliest scholars who regarded the linguistic function theory as a part of translation studies in the circle of western translation. In his book Paragraphs on Translation, Newmark believes that a good translator has to insist 5 middle truth: factual truth, logical truth, aesthetic truth, moral truth and linguistic truth. The so-called middle truth means that refers to the middle elements that restrict translator^ behaviors except source text, target text, source culture and target culture (New mark 1993 :65). As the above five different truth, the author thinks that as a learner, we should focus on the foundation of a good translation text, that is, logical truth and linguistic truth. The logical truth refers to that the content of the texts should be logical, when translating, the translator should judge the truth value of source text, by comprehending the semantic presuppositions of source text so as to deliver an unambiguous and meticulous translation, if there is anything illogical in the source text, the translator has the right to modify it (Newmark 1981:6,42; 1988:205; 1998:204). Newmark believes that the source language and the target language should learn from each other and complement each other. Therefore, “close translation” can not only reflect the language features of the original text, but also enrich the expressiveness of the target language (Newmark 1991:57).
In the book Approaches to Translation, the definition of communicative translation theory that Newmark presents is that: the effect produced for the reader of the target text is as close as possible to that is produced for the reader of the source text (Newmark. 1981:39). As the name implies, the object of communicative translation is the target language readers, by using the language, idiomatic expression and relevant cultural knowledge of the target language to convey information to the target language readers, and tries to remove the difficulties and obstacles in reading or communication for the target language reader, so that the communication can be carried out smoothly (Xie Xiaoni, 2012).
In communicative translation, the form of the source text is only a part of the consideration factor; the theory advocates different translation methods according to different texts (Li Minyu, 2010). However, as for specific literary form,the news text, scholars have different opinions: some scholars (Wang Jinhua, 2007) believe that the translation of news text should be adopted communicative translation theory for its informatization. The other scholar (Zhuli, 2006) believes that translation of news should faithfully reflect the original meaning of the author, and correctly convey information, while semantic translation can reflect the exact content of the news and make readers understand foreign cultures and customs. To address this issue, Newmark believes that all translation must have both semantic translation and communicative translation to some extent, merely the emphasis is different and the two should be considered as a whole (Newmark, 1988:47)
In this translation report, the author has adopted communicative translation theory as guidance to translate culture-loaded words to offer a better effect on audience. Culture-loaded words refer to uwords, phrases and idioms that mark something specific to a culture^, including idioms, proverbs, colloquial sayings, appellation terms, polite terms, greeting language and so on. Culture-loaded words reflect the unique ways of activities of specific ethnic groups,which are gradually accumulated in the long historical process and different from other ethnic groups (Liao Qiyi 2000:232).
The translation of culture-loaded words should subscribe to three principles: communication, acceptability and similarity. Communication requires the accurate transmission of the original information in the translation of culture-loaded words. The purpose of translation is to accurately express the meaning of the source text in the target language so that the target language readers can obtain the information of the original text. As Nida pointed out, the translation is to translate the meaning of resource text, and transmissibility is the first principle in the translation of culture-loaded words. Acceptability refers to whether the translated text can be fully understood by the readers and whether the translated text is easy to understand. In other words, it requires the translated text to conform to the aesthetic habits of the target language readers, be concise and clear, and express smoothly. Similarity requires similarity in content, form and style of culture-loaded words.
In conclusion, If the author applies Newmark's translation theory into newspaper translation, the readers will directly feel the features of both source and target texts. For most source texts that require literal translation, the author uses semantic translation theory to try to reproduce the concise features of the source texts. For example, in the case study of Chapter IV, someone once praised Gandhi ufrom the belly rather than the cheek^, according to the theory of semantic translation, the translator translated this sentence into Chinese with the flavor of ancient Chinese poetry. As for communicative translation theory, it is mainly used to solve the problem of localization in the process of translation, so that Chinese readers can better understand the expression of The Economist.
Chapter Three Task Description
3.1Task Preparation
3.1.1Analysis of the Source Text
The main body of this translation report is news text. Characterized as concise and straightforward, the news text has incomparable advantages over other forms of literature, especially in carrying information. Speaking of getting information, in English news reports, compound sentences or extended long sentences are often used, and the extended long sentences often contain prepositional phrases, attributive clauses, adverbial clauses, object clauses, appositive clauses and other modifiers. Extended sentences are often used to make the language concise and containing as much information as possible (Gu Jianmin 2010).
Through a comprehensive parallel comparison, News texts have the following characteristics: first, the report of facts; Second, the timeliness of news; Third, keeping the authenticity and objectivity of news is the soul of news report (Yu Jiancun 2001):
To analyze the text of The Economist, there are some merits that The Economist has been upholding to consolidate its status among medias in the west. One of their merits in the articles of The Economist is the skill in describing details. News vocabulary and expressions are commonly used in English news texts (Cheng Ying, Qiu Yuhua, Huang Guangfen 2011). The frequent use of acronyms enriches the text and improves reading efficiency. The differences between English and Chinese in expressing ideas incurs wide gap in expression. For example, there is a grand publicity full of four-character Chinese idioms in Chinese official newspaper. Apart from publicity effect, it is more about pursuing a political initiative. Meanwhile, in English news, noun phrases often contain multiple modifiers, and a large number of modifiers are often used before or after the noun phrase. The authors of The Economist, are master of describing great event with a conventional lexical chunk in western culture. In this way, the reader can easily accept the reality without imagination, and the author can focus on the details. Therefore, the style of writing of The Economist is brisk, in the narrative, the sentences and illustrations are quiet straightforward. If we make a parallel comparison of The Economist and China daily, we would find out that the frequency of occurrence of sentence cluster in The Economist is more than the Chinese official media, and that the article in the latter is written to meet Chinese readers5 preferences.
The target reader of The Economist is well-educated rich middle class in western countries. However, the situation may be different in China; the report has pursued a fluency in translation on the lexical and semantic level under Newmark5s semantic translation theory. Even so, the culture-loaded idioms and cultural background are still a challenge for Chinese readers. That is always a tricky part. In the process of translation, especially in handling the culture-loaded idioms, how to control the translation scale of culture-load idioms is really time-consuming.While writing this translation report, the author has cautiously use CT theory to confirm whether culture-loaded idioms can be accepted by readers in China.
In this report, the research of the structure between English and Chinese, the wording of translation and the proper of culture background are also included.
3.1.2Preparation of Background Information
It is hard to translate a source text without adequate background knowledge in the cultural field, for the translator is not only a transmitter of information, but also a constructor of the source text. The humanistic column of The Economist carries lots of information involved in different aspects of global culture. As has been mentioned above, there have been many translation reports of its economic and political columns, but not many in culture column so this translation practice remains a big challenge for the author. In order to achieve a better version, the author has to spend much time searching for the relevant information beforehand so as to obtain enough background knowledge. Then, it is also necessary to understand the features of the cultural texts which usually convey more information in simple language. In the whole translation process, one of the most important things are whether the translator knows how to make the English and Chinese readers reach a seamless joint of the humanistic column. Most essays in The Economist enjoy similar linguistic features and writing styles, firstly, as for the writing styles, the vividness indicates flexible usage of English, shaped in the context by using proverbs and rhetorical devices, such as metaphors, similes and allusions. It may increase the difficulty in the understanding among non-native speakers, including Chinese translators. Moreover, typical target readers of the journal are middle or high end people who are in business or politics and normally possess certain background knowledge. Also, there are a large number of terminologies and a large amount of background information included in those essays without necessary explanation. For Chinese readers, this is another obstacle for understanding. Lastly, a vast number of specific terms and concepts especially the culture-loaded words should be collected beforehand. During the process of translation, the author takes advantage of the English-Chinese Dictionary by Lu
Gusun. Besides, the author also searches online dictionary and related websites, such as the Wikipedia and Google. Besides, the author downloads lots of essays on the translation of The Economist, and also acquires many translation techniques and strategies systematically. Most importantly, the author reads the source texts carefully to have a better understanding of the text and figure out the difficult parts for translation.
3.1.3Tools and Plans of Translation
In the process of translation the author has primarily adopted several tools listed as follows—Oxford Advanced Learner, Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary and Collins Advanced English Dictionary and So forth for the removal of obstacles of new words and technical terms encountered in translating process; Furthermore, the translator would also look up necessary parallel texts and background knowledge by taking advantage of network. Google, for instance, can not only serve as a tool of searching general information but also assist in translating relevant requisite background knowledge, technical terms, and proper nouns such as names of people and places as well as examination of words9 meanings and usage, which is in favor of understanding backgrounds and relevant events of current news. Additionally, as an open encyclopedia, Wikipedia is a powerful tool for searching background materials and bilingual texts while translating.
3.2The Process of Translation
3.2.1Translating
The Economist is an English weekly magazine-format newspaper. Its target customers are the social elites with high income and status. The literal forms determine its linguistic features. In the process of translation, the key point is to convey its linguistic feature to target text. In author^ viewpoint, the linguistic features can be summarized as follows:
Firstly, flexible language expression, one of the features of a newspaper style is that it conveys maximum information in a small number of words (Zhangjian,2010:343). The reason why translators analyze The Economist as a source text is that the articles are highly refined and have a good overview, focusing on telling the reader the most information in the smallest length. And wisdom, sharp, rigorous, neat and slightly mocking are the most important features of The Economist. The flexible language expression avoids the boredom caused by long speeches and focuses on the core issues. Under situations like this requires author to
piece together fragmentary sentences to get the full meaning of it. In that case, the author has
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to adjust sentences to avoid the possible vacancy and delivery a fluency translation on logical. Also, there are a lot of terms and proper nouns in the article. These words are very professional and have high requirements for translators. Some words are quite different in their collocation and usage in daily life and in the style of economic news, which makes it difficult for translators, especially those with insufficient professional knowledge (Wang Weiping, 2012). The meanings of many words in The Economist are not the meanings people usually expect. Therefore, the flexible usage of words remains the first difficulty that translator has to overcome.
The second point is, there are differences in the logical thinking between Chinese and English. Chinese tends to ‘‘back focus”,while English tends to “former focus”. The language, has manifested itself as a carrier of logical thinking (Lin Zonghao, 2012) as a describer, the authors from The Economist when planning the layout of a piece of news, authors often take the importance as the main basis and put the most important information or the most newsworthy facts in the first paragraph of the text, forming the introduction. Slightly less important information follows the lead, adding details one by one, while the most important information comes at the end of the text. From The perspective of the declining importance of the reported information, the text structure arranged in this way is like an inverted pyramid, so it is called “The inverted pyramid”(Han Chaofeng,2012). However, this incremental expressive form has caused trouble for translating these long and complex sentences. This kind of progressive narration is at odds with Chinese traditional reading habits, it is also difficult to achieve a seamless joint between English and Chinese.
Also, The Economist magazine acquiesces that its readers are ware of a lot about cultural allusions, thus, in any copy of The Economist, it does not have any explanations about any cultural background. It is the most difficult that readers have to cross. Articles in The Economist contain kinds of allusion; therefore, the translation of cultural allusion has been a necessary requirement for Chinese readers. In the article Courting troubling of The Economist dated May 13,2017, passage compares Donald Trump as the ancient king of England, the King of Henry VIII. The unspoken words are that both them are trouble-maker and playboy, the reader who knows Western history would get this point, however, the one who does not know would definitely be confused. The cultural-loaded background involves many aspects including: history, politic, religion. How to translate the lexical chunk has been a problem for those who use them to build a bridge between western and eastern culture.
In consideration of the difficulties in the process of translation, the author has taken steps
to improve the quality of report on the translation practice. To sum up, the steps can be divided into two parts: firstly, as the meanings expressed by words can be roughly divided into two categories: denotation and connotation (Zheng Lanying, 2003). In the process of translation, the author has browsed every explanation of every marked word to get an appropriate one. Before translation, the author has collected complex words to make proper arrangements. The structural differences between Chinese and English are also embodied in the coherence and rhetoric of discourse (Cao Runyu, 2012).Considering internal logic in The Economist is complicated, the author reorganizes the structure of the sentences or makes a new sentence to handle the logic relation. Furthermore, after the analysis of the contexts, the author replaces internal logic in English with explicit logic in Chinese to make the target text more acceptable for Chinese readers.
Prepositional phrases, participle phrases and attributive clauses are widely used in English to express subject-subordinate relations, and the expressions in English differ from Chinese (Yu Buli, 2008). With the guidance of Newmark5s translation theory, the author scrutinizes the fluency of translation to make certain if there are any mistakes in the target text. The author also uses the CT theory to check if the cultural idioms are working well in the target text.
Secondly, the purpose of translation of News is to enable target readers not only obtain the information reported by the original language journalists, but also to get the information or enlightenment related to the source language. In this case, compared to source language readers, the target readers can roughly experience similar literary enjoyment (Liu Qizhong,2004: 2) In the whole process of translation, one of the most important things is the translator needs to meet the requirements of such texts in the humanistic column. Ifs the difference between the two cultures. There is something self-evident in one culture but there may not be similar thing in another culture that the translator needs to make a lot of effort to explain (Wang Zuoliang 1985). Most essays in The Economist share similar linguistic features and distinguished writing styles. At first, as for the writing styles, the most obvious feature is vividness, shaping the context by using proverbs and rhetorical devices, such as metaphors, similes and allusions. For the translators of news, they should have strong cross-cultural awareness and high sensitivity to cultural differences (Lu Hongxia, 2011) Such case undoubtedly increases much difficulty in the understanding for non-native speakers, including Chinese translators. Moreover, typical target readers of the journal are middle or high end people who are in business or politics and normally possess certain background knowledge.
Also, there are a large number of terminologies and a large amount of background information included in those essays without necessary explanations. For Chinese readers, this is another obstacle to understanding. Since the expression of Chinese culture tends to be concrete, comprehensive and ontological, while the expression of western culture tends to be abstract, analytical and objective, which lead to many differences between English and Chinese in terms of vocabulary and syntax (Bao Huinan, 2001: 23) Lastly, a vast number of specific terms and concepts especially the culture-loaded words should be collected beforehand. During the translation process, the author takes advantage of the English-Chinese Dictionary by Lu Gusun. Besides, the author also searches online dictionary and related websites, such as the Wikipedia and Google.
3.2.2Rectification
Rectification is a dispensable part of a translation report. In this part, the translator uses a variety of methods to test the translation, which may include three parts:
Firstly, the first part is to check if some sentences or words are mistranslated. The meaning of the semantic translation theory is that: within the scope of the target language structure and semantic permission, the translator has to accurately reproduce the meaning of source text. Thus, the author seriously scrutinizes every sentence from the selected articles of The Economist in order to ensure the correctness of the target text.
Secondly, the author has pursued a logical relation in the target text. The source text is selected from a culture column of The Economist including political, historical and biographical articles that endow news text with the concise literary form and rich connotations. On this level, the author also seriously scrutinizes the logical relation to make sure readers in China would not be confused by intricate relations.
Finally, with the guidance of the communicative translation theory, the author emphasizes the key part: communication. Since many cultural symbols that Chinese readers can not understand, and the translation naturally, is a communicative behavior, the author applies the communicative translation theory to make sure Chinese readers have less difficulty in reading target text, with the application of literal translation, free translation, alienation, and domestication, so that the target text may be easy for readers to accept.
Chapter Four Case Study
4.1The Translation from Culture-cross Perspective
Culture, with its unique national characteristics, is the unique creation of different ethnic groups in a special historical and geographical environment. Translation is the only way to understand the culture of different nationalities (Wu Yuemin, Wujie, 2008). Translation, essentially, is the retelling and rewriting of the source language and culture. For the translator, without the knowledge of comparison between the two cultures, it is impossible to have a correct understanding and expression of the language (Tan Zaixi,1999:ll). Therefore, in this chapter, the author will present typical culture-loaded words in the translated version and discuss the reasonable translation method for the readers. In addition, the author also combines semantic translation with communicative translation, which is manifested in the translation of long sentences.
4.1.1The Translation of Culture-loaded Words
Culture-loaded words contain connotative meaning and cultural meaning, that is, each culture-loaded word is a combination of conceptual meaning and cultural meaning(Wang Enke,2002:83). As mentioned above, conciseness and precision are the greatest characteristics of The Economist. In the translation of cultural columns, the author tries to restore the literal characteristics under the guidance of semantic translation theory, but for the sake of the reading effect of Chinese readers, the translator adopts communicative translation theory to express the meaning of culture-loaded words.
Source Text 1 - Sending the brutal Black and Tans into Ireland as war secretary... Original version: -他在担任陆军部长时,还曾派遣爱尔兰皇家警队后备队进入爱尔
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Analysis: this source text example from a selected article from the culture column of The Economist. Readers in China can not understand this culture-loaded word, the black and tan are two types of color, how does Churchill send the Black and Tans into Ireland to suppress Irish independence movement when he was the war secretary? As the matter of fact, the Black and Tans, officially the Royal Irish Constabulary Special Reserve(Reynolds, 2013:83), who wore a uniform that was black and tan, serving in the Irish constabulary to suppress the Sinn Fein rebellion of 1919 to 1921. Thus, the source text is translated to 黑棕部队,from perspective of semantic translation. Also, the author has adopted communicative translation to translate the culture-loaded word into 爱尔兰皇家警队后备队 to meet the needs of Chinese readers for better understanding.
Improved version:在担任陆军部长时,他还曾派遣凶狠的黑棕部队(爱尔兰皇家警 队后备队)进入爱尔兰去镇压当地起义。
Source Text 2 - CHINA’S “Sputnik moment” came on May 27th 2017.
Original version:-中国的斯普特尼克时刻在2017年5月27日来临。
Analysis: the Spuntik is the transliteration of Russian CnyTHHK; it is the first artificial Earth satellite, launched by the Soviet Union on 4 October 1957. As a result of cold war, the appearance of Spuntik shocks the entire western world. Now, this culture-loaded word usually is used when people realize that they are threatened by great challenge and have to redouble their efforts to catch up. In this sentence, the author also adopted Newmark?s translation theory for translating the culture-loaded word into 期1 普特尼克时亥丨」,also, to better popularize the events of the western world for Chinese readers, this word in Chinese target text is关键时刻.
Improved version-中国的斯普特尼克时刻(关键时刻)在2017年5月27日来临。
Source Text 3 - An administration led by his rival Lord Halifax would have attempted exactly that, with the support of most of the Tory party.
Original version-由他的对手,哈利法克斯励爵也曾在大多数托利党的支持下尝试 于此。
Analysis: in this example, few readers in China are familiar with the history of the UK. The Tory party were members of two political parties which existed sequentially in the UK from the 17th to the early 19th centuries. In 1817, the Tory party was reorganized as the Conservative party. However, the news in UK still uses it as the nick name of Conservative party. In this sentence, Chinese readers might wonder about this sort of political history and thus, the translation of this word has hammered out. To better understand the essence of Newmark?s translation theory, from a perspective of cross-culture, these words with rich meanings can not be roughly translated into something that Chinese readers are familiar with. As a bridge of the East and West, the translation text not only serves as a bridge but also a gate to farther place.
Improved version:由他的对手,哈利法克斯動爵也曾在大多数托利党员(保守党) 的支持下尝试于此。
Source Text 4 - He convinced himself that Italy5 s mountainous spine, defended by crack German divisions,might constitute a “soft underbelly” to attack.
Original version:-他说服他自己由训练有素的德国师保卫的意大利北部是一个便
于进攻之处。
Analysis: the usoft underbelly of Europe^ was a phrase used by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to describe the country of Italy during World War II (Churchill,1968:433). During the second world war, the former prime minister Churchill compared the Europe as a crocodile, Italy as he said, was the soft underbelly. It is a culture-loaded word that involves history and geopolitics, readers in China can not understand the meaning as they first read such a word. Thus,in the target text, this word has been translated as 柔软的下腹音P under guidance of the semantic translation. However, to make readers in China have a better reading experience, this word has also been translated as a Chinese sentence-便于攻击之处•
Improved version -他深信,由训练有素的德国师保卫的意大利北部(阿尔卑斯山 脉区域),山峦叠嶂,是一个便于进攻之处(柔软的下腹部)
Source Text 5 - Sciences insisted that the RBMK was reliable enough to be put on Red Square.
Original version-科学家们坚持认为大功率管道反应堆足够可靠,甚至可以被安放 在红场上。
The term uRed Square59 refers specifically to the Moscow Red Square. Chinese readers may be puzzled by the word “Red Square” when they read the source text. But in Baidu Encyclopedia, the word “Red Square” refers specifically to the Moscow Red Square.
The role of Moscow Red Square is similar to that of Tiananmen Square in China. It was the place where the Soviet Union and Russia held military parades.
So, in the context of this article, the nuclear reactor is safe enough to be placed in Red Square. The translator can finally decide that the so-called Red Square refers to the Moscow Red Square. To enable Chinese readers to further understand the content of the article, the translator translate Red Square into Moscow Red Square.
Improved version -科学家们坚持认为大功率管道反应堆足够可靠,甚至可以被安 放在莫斯科红场上。
4.1.2The Translation of Sentences from Cross-culture Perspective
Actually, translation is a kind of intercultural communication. In the process of translation, the translator should pay attention to expressing as much information as possible in the source text. Therefore, the translation of English newspapers and periodicals should not only grasp the common emotional experience of the whole human race, but also understand the individual characteristics of the two languages and cultures. Only in this way can the English newspapers and periodicals build a bridge of language and culture communication (Ma Jianguo, 2002:25).
Source Text 6 - He also nurtured successors, most obviously Nehru. The contrast with militaristic, unstable and often repressive Pakistan under Muhammad Ali Jinnah could not be more striking.
Original version-他还培养了接班人,最明显的是尼赫鲁。与穆罕默德•阿里•金 纳(MuhammadAliJinnah)领导下的军国主义、不稳定和经常镇压的巴基斯坦形成鲜明 对比。
Analysis: in source sentence, the lack of meaning in this article has caused Chinese readers to feel very confused. The key is that Chinese readers do not know the deeds and historical status of Nehru and Jennah. More obviously, the consistent language style of The Economist has led ordinary Chinese readers to compare Nehru himself with Pakistan, which has formed a logical paradox. Therefore, the translator adds explanatory elements to the translation, which complements logical structure and enables Chinese readers to better understand the information in the text. From a cross-cultural perspective, translation serves as a bridge between the target readers and the source text. From the linguistic perspective, the use of Chinese four-character idioms better conveys the information of the original text and is more acceptable to Chinese readers.
Improved version-甘地还培养了接班人,最显著的当属印度独立首任总理尼赫鲁。 彼时的印度在与巴基斯坦国父真纳治下军国主义、动荡不稳、经常镇压国内起义的巴基 斯坦形成鲜明对比。
Source Text 7 - Seepersad Naipaul (father of V.S.) praised Gandhi for writing
passionately and directly,“from the belly rather than from the cheek”.
Original version-斯皮尔萨德•奈保尔(瓦拉布巴伊帕特尔之父)称赞甘地“从里 到外”热情而直抒胸臆得写作。
Analysis: from this example, in traditional Chinese culture, liver and gallbladder have gone beyond the physiological boundaries and become a spiritual symbol. In this sentence, Gandhi5s friends once praised him for his passionate words. ufrom the belly rather than from the cheek^. The words in this sentence are easy to understand, but it remains a challenge that how to translate it in a way that Chinese will understand and accept. Thus, under the guidance of communicative translation theory that readers play a significant role in the process of translation, the author has translated cheek and belly into 肝月旦 which is much more acceptable to Chinese readers. Also, the author makes the target texts closer to ancient Chinese poetry that enables readers to have an immersive experience to appreciate the charm of communicative translation theory.
Improved version -瓦拉布巴伊帕特尔之父亲西普赛德奈保罗还曾因激情洋溢直抒 胸臆的文字而盛赞过甘地:笔起心中,文出肝胆。
Target Text 8 - As Mr. Gingrich was amassing power in Congress, a wily, ambitious Democratic governor from Arkansas was circling the ring.
Original version-当金里奇在国会积聚权力时,来自阿肯色州的一位老谋深算、野 心勃勃的民主党州长正来回绕圈。
Analysis: this action originally refers to the boxer9s action on the boxing field, but in the translation, the author expresses the meaning of this action more clearly. When translating, the translator considers how to make the original text more precise and vivid. After understanding the meaning of the action, the author adds a typical Chinese idiom to express the tension described in the source text. Also, combining the political background of the source text,the author adds 权力场 to the translation to make the target text more vivid.
In the process of translation, how to translate the adjectives of the source text equivalently under the premise of conveying the original meaning is a great challenge. Translators should not only fully grasp the meaning of the source text, but also modify the language as much as possible under the premise of balance.
Improved version:当金里奇在国会积聚权力时,来自阿肯色州的一位老谋深算、野 心勃勃的民主党州长正在权力场外围虎视眈眈。
Source Text 9 - At a recent meeting in a redbrick YMCA in Bronzeville, he spoke of how his brother, a soldier who just ended a tour in Syria, refuses to move to Chicago because of its lawlessness.
Original version-在最近在布朗泽维尔一个红砖基督教青年会的一次会议上,他谈 到了他的兄弟,一个刚刚结束叙利亚之旅的士兵,因为芝加哥的治安混乱而拒绝搬到芝
加哥。
Analysis: in the source language, YMCA, as a religious organization, has great influence and high popularity in the western society. But in China, the YMCA is not very famous, so in the target language translation, the translator explains the meaning of YMCA.
Also, as a religious organization, YMCA often holds meetings where people help each other and speak freely. Therefore, from a cross-cultural perspective, the translator adds several words that are not found in the source language, making the whole translation more fluent.
This sentence adopts the theory of semantic translation. Translate each part of a sentence in turn without changing the internal structure of the source language. Structurally, the translation method of this sentence is also similar to that of the sequence-driven approach in interpretation.
Improved version -在最近在布朗泽维尔一个红砖基督教青年会的一次会议上,他 谈到了他的兄弟,一个刚刚结束叙利亚之旅的士兵,因为芝加哥暴徒的无法无天而拒绝 搬到芝加哥。
Source Text 10 - Her book is among the most frequently read by prisoners in America. Nelson Mandela, who read it on Robben Island, said it ukept our spirits high and reinforced our confidence in the invincibility of the cause of freedom”.
Original version-她的书是美国囚犯最常读的书之一。在罗本岛上读到这本书的纳 尔逊•曼德拉说:“它使我们保持了高昂的情绪,增强了我们对自由事业不可战胜的信 心。”
Analysis: The source language of this paragraph mentioned Nelson Mandela, the former leader of the Republic of South Africa. Readers in China may not know much about him, he once stayed in prison for the whole 27 years for the freedom and equality of black people in South Africa. In the source text, there is no evident description of him, since he enjoyed great fame in the western world. However, Chinese readers do not know much about him, so it is necessary to add a brief explanation to the target text.
From a cross-cultural perspective, the author adopts literal translation, which belongs to the range of semantic translation. However, in the process of translation, the characteristics of communicative translation theory are combined to enable the translation to convey more information.
Improved version-他的书是美国监狱犯人的最爱,南非独立运动领导人纳尔逊曼 德拉,在罗宾岛服刑时,在看过书后称赞道:此书能让我们志气高昂,在我们必将胜利 的自由事业中加强我们的自信。
4.2The Conveyance of Linguistic Features of The Economist
The linguistic feature of The Economist as we mentioned before is flexible; the author adheres to the guidance of the semantic translation theory to imitate the writing style. Moreover, as a news text, the core function is to delivery information, thus, in the source text of The Economist, the appositive clauses are often used as an effective way to delivery information in The Economist. In this part, the author tries to present the target text without changing the original sentences structure.
Source Text 11 - On that day an algorithm thrashed Ke Jie, the world best player of Go
Original version-那天,一个算法打败了世界上最好的围棋手克杰。
Analysis; Ke Jie, the best player of Go in the world, has won the championship of Sam-sung world Go competition three times in a row. However, on May 27th 2017, he was defeated by the AlphaGo, the world most advanced algorithm robot. It is a complete failure for him as well as a blow to everyone’s psyche. The word “thrash” originally means 鞭打 in Chinese,对 uses such a word “thrash” to show how thorough this failure is. Thus, in the Chinese translation text, the author selects the word 完虐 to match the predicate verb in the resource text. The word thrash can also be regarded as the characteristic of its colloquial expressions.
Improved version-那一天,一个算法机器人完虐柯洁-这个世界上最好的围棋运动
员。
Source Text 12 - The mayors of Chinese cities are splashing the cash on AI startups.
Original version-中国的市长们正把钱花在人工智能初仓ll企业上。
Analysis: there are two key points in this paragraph that readers should pay attention to. The first is what the mayors mentioned in the article. As we all know, the ruling party of China is the Communist Party of China, and the highest level official of an administrative region should be the Secretary of the Municipal Party Committee. Therefore, in the process of translation, guided by communicative translation theory, the author takes the target language readers as the core and translates the mayors into 令页导者们.
The second point is the verb ''splash^, the meaning of this verb on Langman dictionary is that “the sound of a liquid hitting something or being moved around quickly”. However, in this sentence, the verb means greatly invest in the startups. And From a political point of view, this verb can not be translated as 大笔撒钱• Thus,this sentence can only be translated as 大
笔投资.
Improved version-中国许多城市的领导者们都在人工智能创新公司上大笔投资.
Source Text 13 - Foremost among his heroes is Nehru9s deputy, Vallabhbhai Patel, a more muscular nationalist and pro-Hindu politician.
Original version-在莫迪的偶像中,最重要的是尼赫鲁的副手瓦拉布哈帕特尔,一 个更强硬的的民族主义者和亲印度教的政治家。
Analysis : when it comes to this example, it is a challenge for the author to translate the combination of parenthesis and an appositive clause. In this sentence, there are a few points that need concentrating on. Firstly, it is the proper translation of “one’s hero”,this lexical chunk is usually expressed by a fan to the star he admires. However, in consideration of Modi’s political statue,it is inappropriate to translate this lexical chunk as 莫迪的英雄,thus, the tune in the target source has to be weakened Secondly,the parenthesis “pro-” still remains a challenge for the translator. According to the explanation of the Longman, the meaning of “pro-” is that “in favour of or supporting something”,beyond that,speaking of the usual practice in translating news text, the author has decided to translate the “pro-” as 亲, to match the concise writing style of The Economist. Finally, it is about the grammatical structure of this whole sentence, this is a typical appositive clause with information unfolding from front to back, but is is rather lengthy in Chinese if it is fully translated under semantic translation theory. Thus, the author divides the long sentence into two parts, each of which is roughly equal in length. To make readers in China have a better feeling in reading, the author optimized the inner structure of target source, the two key information in source are umore muscular nationalist and pro-Hindu politician”. In Chinese, the two key information has been translated as强硬的民族主义者and亲印度教的政治人物,which of those are connected with不仅还.
Improved version -在莫迪所敬慕的人物中,以萨达尔•瓦拉巴伊•帕特尔为最。
作为首相尼赫鲁的副手,他不仅是作为强硬的民族主义者,更是一位亲印度教的政客。
Source Text 14- Now he runs a Chinese venture-capital fund, which gives him a ringside seat for the contest between what he calls the two UAI superpowers^, China and America.
Original version -现在他经营着一家中国风险投资基金,这给了他在他所称的中国 和美国这两个“人工智能超级大国”之间的竞争中一个有利的位置。
Analysis: from this sentence, the ^ringside seat,9 originally meant that in boxing, the audience’s seat was dose to the referee’s seat so that they could observe the match closely. A remarkable linguistic feature of Economist magazine is its habit of replacing abstract concepts with specific vocabulary. So when Western readers read this sentence, they will have an intuitive understanding. In China, it is difficult to find an equivalent word to interpret, so in the target text, the author uses free translation to interpret the phrase.
In the process of translation, the author uses literal translation and free translation to interpret the sentences of The Economist, but even Newmark said it was impossible to find a perfect translation method nowadays, so the translator seeks a balance between the source language and the target language.
Improved version -现在他运营着一家中国的风投基金,这也使得他能够在他口中中 美人工智能霸权的争夺战中近距离观察.
Source Text 15 - Together these qualities produce politicians who can place their uhand on the wheel of history”.
Original version-这些品质加在一起造就了政治家,他们可以影响历史。
Analysis: Chinese history formulates differently from Western history. In Chinese history, personification is seldom used. Similarly, in the description of Chinese history and literature, there are few expressions of uthe wheel of history^. In The Economist, the language description is flexible, often using rhetorical tactics such as personification and metaphor.
Therefore, the translator makes a general analysis of the information in the source language, adopts the free translation method, and translates the wheel of history from the source language into the figures that influence the history.
Improved version -综合这些特质以锻造出可以左右历史的政治人物。
4.3The Translation of Long and Complex Sentences
Source Text 16 - Mr. Ke9s defeat by AlphaGo, an artificial intelligence (AI) system developed by DeepMind, a British firm that has been bought by Google, was as much a blow to China’s psyche as the Soviet satellite was to American’s self-esteem in 1957.
Original version-柯洁被一家被谷歌收购的英国公司深思开发的人工智能系统阿尔 法高打败,对中国的心理造成的打击,与苏联卫星1957年对美国人自尊造成的打击一 样大。
Analysis: in 1957, the first satellite was launched by CCCP as an embodiment of the most advanced military technology as well as a huge shock to American’s mind. In these sentences, the author has adopted semantic translation to translate whole sentence. Thus, the Chinese readers would intuitively get the information that source text carries.
After adding some conjunctions, the interior structure of Chinese sentence is far more compact and logical. Also, to highlight the hidden historical fact in history, the author also selected communicative translation theory to make readers in China know the objective fact: the first satellite, Sputnik of the mankind was launch in 1957 has raised a series of events including Sputnik crisis, stock market disaster in Wall Street and so on.
Improved version -柯洁战败于阿尔法高,而开发这个人工智能机器人的英国深思 公司,此前已被谷歌收购。这一消息对中国人精神的打击不啻于1957年苏联发射第一 颗人造卫星对美国人自尊的打击。
Source Text 17 - Mr. Modi has encouraged popular acceptance of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), a movement that was banned under Nehru after Mohandas
Gandhi was shot dead in 1948 by a Hindu extremist associated with it.
Original version-莫迪鼓励民众接受拉什特里亚•斯韦阿姆塞瓦克•桑格。这是一 个在1948年莫汉达斯•甘地被一个与之相关的印度教极端分子枪杀后,尼赫鲁禁止的 运动。
Analysis: the English emphasize hypotaxis while Chinese focuses parataxis. In these sentences, with the guidance of semantic translation theory, the Chinese translation text merely changes its interior structure to match the same structure of source text. Furthermore, the author adds a logical word “因” to make the whole target text more reasonable. Beyond that, as for the group Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), it would be much better for Chinese readers to know the real feature of RSS. It is an extremist group made up by Hindus who are fighting against Muslims. The communicative translation theory is properly used on this level.
Improved version-莫迪鼓励民众接受国民志愿服务团。但在1948年,一位与之有 着密切关系的极端分子枪杀了莫罕达斯甘地,所以在尼赫鲁治下被禁。
Source Text 18 - Despite almost abusive neglect by his parents—the dazzling but self-destructive Conservative politician Lord Randolph and his beautiful, rich American wife—Churchill saw in himself the possibility of greatness.
OriginaWersion-尽管他的父母长期忽略他,他那光芒四射但自我毁灭的保守派政 治家伦道夫勋爵和他美丽、富有的美国妻子,丘吉尔在自己身上看到了伟大的可能性。
Analysis: the translator^ role in the process of translation is not a servant, but to reproduce on the premise of fully grasping the source language information. But the difficulty in translating this sentence lies in how to translate a large number of attributives from source text completely and orderly.
Therefore, with the guidance of Newmark communicative translation theory, the author has adopted literal translation, but in the process of translation, the translator adjusts the internal structure of the translation according to the different reading habits between the East and the West.
Improved version -尽管他的父亲伦道夫勋爵,一位光芒四射却自我毁灭的保守党 政客和他美丽富裕的美国妻子长期忽略他,但丘吉尔还是从自己身上看到了伟大的可 能。
Chapter Five Conclusion
5.1Major Findings and Limitations
With the guidance of Newmark’s translation theory,the author has learned some findings through the process of translation, the specific findings are listed as follows:
First,with further understanding of Newmark’s translation theory, the author has found the CT and ST theory can be applied not only in new texts but also in other literature forms such as political text and biographical text. Through the proper application of these two translation theories, the translator would no longer be set in the dilemma caused by previous single translation theory. In this case, the translator can give consideration to both sides, word-to-word and communication, rather than compromising with one side in the process of translation.
Second, the flexible application of verbs and the appearances of the appositive clause is the distinctive feature from Chinese typical news text. To pursue a similar writing style, the author has to delete all unnecessary words and sentences to obtain the same precise and direct language features as the source text presents. The existence of differences between Chinese and English remains a major barrier for Chinese readers; when translating, the translator should divide long complex sentences into short sentences to comply with Chinese reading habit.
Third, any translation of cultural allusions may affect the overall effect of translation . The key points such as historical environment, political background, the character must be considered in the translation. The translator must proceed from an overall situation. Thus, the translation work should be as detailed as possible on the premise of maintaining the writing style.
Obviously, the translation process is also a decisive part of the translation effect.
Firstly, in the preparatory stage, the translator should have a full understanding of the whole source text. If the source text is a political text, the translator should make a general investigation of the political events and politicians involved in the source text. If the source text involves the characters, the translator should search more information of the historical figures in it to have a better idea of the translation.
Secondly, when translating, as mentioned above, the source text contains both colloquial short sentences and long sentences to convey information. Therefore, when translating, translators should be careful to identify which sentences can be translated literally and which
sentences can be translated flexibly.
Moreover, culture-loaded words are a big problem for translators. Both Chinese and Western cultures have splendid cultures. Language, as the carrier of culture, will inevitably appear in the source text. In view of this situation, translators should search the Internet for relevant materials. Finally, the author finds that translation is not a simple matter. There are many factors involved in translation. Therefore, translators are required to have meticulous professional skills.
5.2Limitations and Suggestions
This translation practice has been completed, but there are still many errors in the translation report. After analysis, the translator believes that the errors are mainly in the following aspects.
Firstly, the lack of translation ability. In the process of translation, the translator feels that it is very difficult to translate the humanistic articles of The Economist. The translator thinks that the lack of translation ability limits the author^ further development. Translation is a comprehensive project. The emergence of various shortcomings may lead to the failure of translation work.
Secondly, the translator is not familiar with the western culture. As mentioned above, translation is a comprehensive project and the cultural background of the source language is a rather significant part. Unfamiliarity with the cultural background of the source language country leads to slow translation speed and poor quality.
The final problem lies in the low level of analytical ability of the source language. In addition, the level of Chinese writing is not solid enough. When contrasting the source language with the target language, it is found that there are many long sentences in the translated text that are obviously not in line with Chinese reading habits, because the author still lacks translation experience.
A good work and a good interpreter need constant improvement. In response to the translator’s question, here are some suggestions: firstly,the inadequacy of translation ability should be specific to one aspect. On this basis, translators should improve their translation practice ability through a large number of targeted training.In addition, the translator also needs to accumulate a large number of professional vocabulary in his daily life for the occasional need. Secondly, Western culture is extensive and profound, and it is impossible for an interpreter to master it completely. Only in a certain subdivision area, can the translator respond quickly and translate correctly through long-term hard training. In the cultural field, while improving his translation ability, the translator should also read books of Western culture, such as books of political, economic and history,as his own knowledge reserve. Finally, the inadequacy of source text analysis is a comprehensive problem. In this case, only by increasing the intensity of training and increasing their knowledge reserves can translators cope with this problem more effectively.
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