英语学科核心素养背景下 的初中英语阅读教学设计研究

来源: 未知 作者:paper 发布时间: 2020-03-10 21:43
论文地区:中国 论文语言:中文 论文类型:英语论文
摘要 《高中英语课程标准》(2017版)提出,英语学科核心素养包 括学科关键能力和学生必备品格两个方面。在新的学科目标的要求 下,英语阅读对于提升初中学生的核心素养,尤其是
摘要
《高中英语课程标准》(2017版)提出,英语学科核心素养包 括学科关键能力和学生必备品格两个方面。在新的学科目标的要求 下,英语阅读对于提升初中学生的核心素养,尤其是语言能力、文化 品格、思维品质以及学习能力将发挥关键性作用。基于此,本文拟探 讨基于英语学科核心素养的初中英语阅读教学设计在阅读课堂中的 效用,旨在加强初中英语教师对英语学科核心素养以及英语阅读教学 设计的重视和认识,进而更有效地改善初中英语阅读教学效果。
本文的研宄对象为贵阳市第十七中学的全体初中英语教师以及 初三年级两个班的学生,其中一个班为实验班,另一个班为控制班。 在实验开始前,作者通过问卷调查分别了解教师对英语学科核心素养 的认识现状、学生对目前英语阅读课的意见和建议,并且通过前测得 知两个班的英语阅读水平。随后,作者在实验班运用了基于英语学科 核心素养的英语阅读教学模式,而在控制班则沿用了原有的以讲授为 主的教学方式。实验结束后,作者通过访谈再次了解实验班的学生对 英语阅读教学的看法,并且通过后测了解以英语学科核心素养为指导 下的初中英语阅读教学设计在运用到英语阅读课堂后,对实验班学生 的阅读效果产生怎样的变化。
通过问卷调查,作者发现绝大多数初中英语教师对英语学科核心 素养的认识还不够全面,忽视英语学科核心素养对英语教学设计的指 导。其次,访谈的结果表明实验后学生的阅读兴趣以及阅读技巧得到 了一定提升,进而通过分析前测与后测的数据,结果表明实验班的英 语阅读成绩超过了控制班,并且作者发现基于英语学科核心素养的英 语阅读教学设计,能够帮助教师更好地提升英语阅读教学效果,并且 能在阅读教学中提高实验班学生的阅读兴趣、阅读技巧、阅读能力, 进而有效地提升了学生的阅读能力。
Core Competencies has been put forward since 1997, and Core Competencies includes many aspects, such as successful-life, life-long learning and individual development. In China, Core Competencies has been firstly used in education in 2014. Whereafter, Lin Chongde and his team have proposed Development of Chinese Students} Core Competencies which is a new breakthrough in education reform. This document points out the framework of Core Competencies which refers to the necessary qualities and key capacities of students in the life-long sense of development required by society, which also makes Chinese scholars gradually put focus on Core Competencies from the perspective of different subjects. Under this circumstance, English Subject Core Competencies (short for ESCC) emerges, which is involved in four dimensions including linguistic competence, thinking quality, cultural disposition and learning ability. However, current research mostly focuses on the connotation of ESCC instead of the practical aspects of ESCC in the classroom. Lu Ziwen (2016) claims that the classroom instruction is the practical way to fulfill the requirements of ESCC and finally reach the goal of cultivating middle school students5 ESCC. Thus, the empirical research under the guidance of ESCC should be emphasized.
Reading instruction is greatly conductive to form students’ language accomplishment, so it5s necessary for teachers to improve English reading instruction based on ESCC. Nevertheless, most English teachers focus on teaching vocabularies, sentence patterns and grammatical rules in the process of English reading instruction. Although many English teachers realize the importance of cultivating middle school students5 thinking quality, cultural disposition and learning abilities through English reading teaching, they usually guide middle school students to pay more attention to English language points such as vocabularies, sentence patterns and grammatical rules in English reading instruction. Since an overall instructional design can guide teachers to transmit knowledge to the students, develop students9 reading skills and cultivate a positive attitude towards reading and finally achieve teaching objectives and fulfill teaching tasks, teachers should take ESCC into consideration to adjust their reading instructional design. This study aims to make English reading instructional design


which can reflect the requirements of ESCC.
To sum up, to make the reading instructional design with the guidance of ESCC is an effective way strengthen middle school students5 linguistic competence, cultivate learning abilities, develop thinking quality and shape students9 cultural disposition.
1.2Research Significance
There are two perspectives which show the significance of the thesis.
In terms of theoretical significance, reading is a major part in four skills in English learning. The previous studies of English reading instruction in middle school mostly focus on reading models, reading strategies and teaching methods, but there is less research on reading instructional design related to ESCC. So, current research which focuses on making reading instructional designs based on ESCC are of importance. This thesis attempts to enrich the research of English reading instructional designs based on ESCC and provide valuable referential support for reading instruction in middle school.
In terms of practical significance, ESCC is a newly presented conception and it includes four dimensions, linguistic competence, learning ability, cultural disposition and thinking quality. Ifs necessary for English teachers to think about how to conduct English reading instruction based on ESCC and finally promote the cultivation students5 four parts of ESCC. Therefore, this thesis tries to provide a teaching example of English reading instructional design based on ESCC, aiming to enhance reading instructional effects in middle school and improve middle school students5 reading skills and reading interests. Hence, this thesis may offer the teaching example for English teachers to show how to connect four dimensions of ESCC with reading instruction. Also, it may provide some suggestions for further reading instruction.
In a word, ESCC is the direction of cultivating students9 necessary qualities and key capacities. Wherefore, this thesis will be helpful to raise English teachers9 awareness about the correlation between ESCC and English reading instructional design of middle school and improve middle school students9 reading skills, reading strategies and reading interests so as to achieve the goals of cultivating middle school students’ linguistic competence, learning ability, cultural disposition and thinking quality.
1.3Research Questions
This thesis aims to investigate the current status of English reading instruction in middle school and English teachers5 opinions and attitudes towards reading instructional design with the requirements of ESCC? and then find out teaching effectiveness which is brought by reading instructional designs according to ESCC. Therefore, this thesis intends to probe into the following two questions:
(1)How do middle school English teachers recognize the correlation between English reading instructional design and ESCC?
(2)What effects will have on English reading instruction through the application of English reading instructional design based on ESCC?
1.4Structure of the Thesis
This thesis is composed of the following chapters.
Chapter one consists of four parts including research background, research questions, research significance as well as the overall structure of the thesis.
Chapter two is the literature review, including three aspects. The first part is to expound the research status of the ESCC at home and abroad. The second part is to review the previous studies of English reading instructional design at home and abroad. The theoretical foundation of this thesis is presented in the third part.
Chapter three sets out research design. It involves in presenting the preparation and analysis of research design. So, this chapter is to have a brief analysis of research participants, research instruments and research methods. As well, the research implementation is also briefly presented step by step. It clearly reveals what the author plans to do, how the author achieves the research goals. Whafs more, a teaching example is presented in this part to demonstrate the reading instructional design based on the ESCC.
In Chapter four, the first part is to analyze pre-test and post-test, interviews and questionnaires. Based the analysis of the collected data, the author aims to discuss the research questions. Also, this chapter is the core of this thesis and the source of major findings of next chapter.
Chapter five is the last chapter of this thesis which is to have a summary of the thesis. It refers to the major findings in this thesis and implication for further studies. In addition, research limitations are also pointed out in this chapter.
2.1Introduction of English Subject Core Competencies
Core Competencies is a general and abstract conception that provides guidance for the overall development of students. Core Competencies may vary according to different subjects, so scholars define specific Core Competencies of each subject through combining Core Competencies with the features of different subjects. To have a better understanding of ESCC, the author will firstly review these related definitions of Core Competencies and English Subject Core Competencies in this part.
There are various definitions of Core Competencies. Zhang Hua (2016) introduces the definition of Core Competencies which is presented by OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development), an influential organization focusing on the research on Core Competencies. According to the definition of OECD, Core Competencies refers to the capabilities of employing the special strategies and making use of managing resources when dealing with the complex contexts. It is a dynamic process which requires people to integrate knowledge, skills, attitudes and values to solve problems. Core Competencies system will contribute to individuals5 successful life and well-functioning society; Shi Jiuming (2014) reviews definitions of Core Competencies given by different scholars and organizations, and summarizes that Core Competencies includes two aspects, cognitive competencies and non-cognitive competencies, integration of knowledge, skills and values. Cognitive competency refers to the ability of problem-solving, exploring and critical thinking, while non-cognitive competency refers to the capability of self-management, organizational skills and interpersonal relationships. Lin Chongde (2016) defines that Core Competencies is necessary characters and key capacities that students gradually adapt in the life-long sense of development required by society. These competencies help individuals to adapt society and serve individuals’ future development. The author thinks that Core Competencies is the integration of knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and so on, and these competencies help individuals to adapt society and serve individuals’ future development.
ESCC is the detailed expression of Core Competencies under English subject. Yu
Wenshen (2016) claims that the key to developing English instruction is to focus on
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ESCC. And, ESCC truly represents the connotation of English and the nature of this subject. As Cheng Xiaotang (2016) says, English is not only a tool of communication and thinking, but also a carrier of culture of English countries. This explanation reflects the nature of English language including its functionality and humanity, and it provides the theoretical foundation of ESCC. In 2017, English Curriculum Standards for Senior High Schools was presented by Minister of Education. It specifies the definition about ESCC. It claims that English education is to develop the necessary qualities and key capacities of students in the life-long sense of development required by society under the framework of ESCC. ESCC covers four dimensions, linguistic competencies, learning ability, thinking quality and cultural disposition. Different scholars explain ESCC from four dimensions. And the following is the details of the explanation.
According to English Curriculum Standards for Senior High Schools (2018), it specifies that linguistic competence refers to the capability to understand and express meanings, intentions and affective attitudes by five skills of listening, speaking, reading, writing and viewing in social situations. Linguistic competence is the fundamental dimension of ESCC which helps students to develop other three dimensions. Cheng Xiaotang (2016) gives a further explanation of linguistic competencies which covers five abilities: a. understanding the nature of English language and awareness of the significance about English learning; b. constructing the language knowledge and expressing meanings in English; c. understanding meanings of oral English and written English with different themes and genres; d. appropriate oral and written expressions; e. communicating with people in English. Based on the connotation of linguistic competence, it covers different aspects which include language knowledge, discourse competence, and pragmatic competence. And linguistic competence provides foundation to conduce to broaden students9 cultural horizons, develop their thinking, and cultivate their cross-cultural awareness.
Learning abilities mean that students can use and modify learning strategies, search for various learning resources, and increase learning efficiency {English Curriculum Standards for Senior High Schools, 2018). Cheng Xiaotang (2016) emphases that learning abilities refers to not only learning methods and learning strategies, but also the recognition and attitudes towards English and English learning. Chen Yanjun and Liu Jianjun (2016) indicate that students with learning abilities mean they can have interests in keeping learning, identify learning goals and acquire various learning resources and then conduct the learning process effectively by selecting certain strategies to monitor, reflect, adapt, evaluate.
Based on English Curriculum Standards for Senior High Schools (2018), thinking quality refers to the ability that students adopt thinking skills during the learning process, and the specific representation of thinking skills includes categorizing, summarizing, inferencing, analyzing. Students are required to think in a more logical, critical and creative way. Wang Qiang (2015) identifies thinking quality can conduce to the development of students5 abilities of analysis and problem-solving, and then students can observe and understand the world from the cross-cultural perspective as well as make judgments correctly on the things. In the other words, cultivating thinking quality is to promote the formation of the different mode of thinking.
Cultural disposition refers to students5 understandings about the cultures in Chinese and foreign countries and the recognition of the excellent cultures under the globalization. Cheng Xiaotang (2016) expresses that students can have a better understanding and higher awareness on cross-cultural communication in English learning. In addition, the cultural disposition also includes emotions, attitudes and values that students show in English learning process.
Cheng Xiaotang (2016) analyses four dimensions of ESCC that linguistic competence is the basic in ESCC, and it provides the support to develop cultural disposition, thinking quality and learning abilities. Improving students9 linguistic competence is beneficial to broaden students9 cultural horizon, and enrich students thinking modes. Chen Yanjun (2016) thinks that each dimension of ESCC has its special connotation and its works through the process of English teaching. Zhang Lianzhong (2015) categorizes ESCC into three levels. The first level refers to "things must do” during learning English,which means it includes four language skills and language knowledge. The second level is the competences acquired through English learning. This level involves in cross-cultural communication and social communication. The third level is the higher-order competences, such as critical thinking and creative thinking. From the opinions mentioned above, it can be seen that English is not as a subject but the competencies which are conducive to studenfs development. Whafs more, it cannot be ignored that English is a subject which has its special educational value referred to the essence of ESCC.
From the above research, it might be clear that ESCC consists of four parts, and
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each of them is not independent but have internal connections. Hence, four parts of ESCC need to be seen as a whole as well as be interacted with each other.
2.2Research of English Reading Instruction at Home and Abroad
Based on the previous research, the author finds that the research on reading are involved in reading strategies or reading modes, but there is less research which is about English reading instructional design, so ifs quite hard for the author to give more research on it. So, in this part, the author tries to review the previous research from three parts, English reading, reading instruction and instructional design.
2.2.1Related Research Abroad
Reading is the reading is a major part in four skills in English learning and is the main way to input language and knowledge. Carrell (1988) thinks that reading is a complex intelligent activity which can obtain information from written language, and ifs a psychological process to get the meanings of information. In the process of reading, readers may use their linguistic competence to understand and gain information. Goodman (1967) claims that reading is a guessing game of psycholinguistics, and he separates reading process into three periods, word processing, sentence processing, and discourse processing. It means that reading comprehension is from words to sentences to texts. In Goodman^ opinions, readers need to understand texts based on acquiring vocabularies, analyzing details in reading materials, guessing authors9 intention and gain information with specific purposes. From those aspects, reading is considered as a psychological process to identify words, sentence patterns and text structures, obtain information from written materials and analyze and understand their deep meanings. So, from the definition of reading, it shows that process of reading is complicated which may conduce to rich readers9 linguistic competence.
For reading instruction, Penny (1996) thinks that during reading instruction, teachers should courage students to comprehend text as a whole. Aebersold (2006) explains that when teachers make instructional designs, they need to clarify teaching objectives, analyze abilities, needs and motivation of students. So many factors should be considered before and during making a reading instructional design. The factors
include students5 needs, interests and abilities. Grabe & Stoller (2000) believe that teachers play an important role in designing efficient reading activities to improve students5 reading competence. The following aspects will contribute to effective reading activities. Firstly, teachers should take advantages of traditional theories about reading instruction and absorb the new conceptions on teaching reading; Secondly, teachers cannot conduct reading instruction merely based on their own teaching experience. Finally, it is necessary to grasp the learner5s vocabulary levels and the proficiency of reading, so as to better promote the improvement of learners9 reading abilities. Reading instruction in the second language aims to make students become a proficient reader. In order to become proficient readers, language learners need have abilities to decode and to recognize words, sentences, grammar and to connect the information within texts and background knowledge.
Researchers started to pay attention to the research about instructional design in the 1970s. Gagne (1992) proposed a series of events which follow a systematic instructional design process that share the behaviorist approach to learning, with a focus on the outcomes or behaviors of instruction or training. They are gaining attention of the students, informing students of the objectives, stimulating recall of prior learning, presenting the content, providing learning guidance, eliciting performance, providing feedback, assessing performance and enhancing retention and transferring to the job. Jonathan (1992) claims that instructional designers should have a clear comprehension that instructional design is interacted with teaching objectives, teaching subjects and other aspects, rather than imposed students with teaching objectives. Merrill (1966) thinks instructional design is this kind of science technology which based on teaching science. It can be called scientific knowledge and skills, meanwhile, create a learning environment for students to improve them to learn knowledge and skills. Smith (1999) regards instructional design as applying systematic ways which refers to transform the principles of learning theory and teaching theory into a systematic process of specific plans for teaching materials, teaching activities, information resources, and teaching evaluation. Instructional design is another concept which is different from teaching plan. It is a systematic process to make a plan of teaching system, which conduces to teaching objectives, teaching subjects, teaching procedures and other parts. So, a completed reading instructional design can promote effective reading instruction.
Above all the opinions, it can be concluded that reading is a complicated process
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to analyze materials, gain information and obtain knowledge. Since teachers play an important role in the process of reading instruction, teachers should keep learning new teaching theories and have an overall understanding of reading materials to improve students’ reading competence.
2.2.2Related Research at Home
Zhang Biyin (1997) thinks reading is a process to obtain information from written materials and influence by non-intellectual factors, and this process has a close relation with motivations, affects and characters as well. His view is now reflected in new curriculum reform. The overall goals of English course are not only to cultivate language skills and knowledge but also to focus on students5 affective attitudes, learning strategies and cultural awareness. Hu Chundong (1996) claims that reading is to construct meanings of texts by activating background knowledge. To some extent, English reading teaching means that it is a process, under the guidance of the teachers, students can understand the authors9 intentions according to the reading materials, and at the same time, what they read will be absorbed into student’s knowledge structure. In summary, reading instruction is an activity that students re-integrate existed knowledge with new information under the guidance of teachers.
Shu Dingfang and Zhuang Zhixiang (1996) claim that students should have literature appreciation skills and experience the beauty of language and text during the reading process. In 2010, Fang Yajun explains in the article Reflection and Exploration of English Reading Teaching in Middle school that teachers should fully realize the factors which impede the effectiveness of reading instruction, and activate students5 participation in reading activities, increase students9 reading interests, develop students5 thinking, cultivate their awareness to use reading strategies and reading skills. The most importance is to change students9 reading attitudes from passive to initiative. Her views are complied with ESCC. And Zhou Lanying (2011) argues that the purpose of reading instruction is not only to teach students reading methods and reading skills, but also to enhance students9 reading comprehension. Ge Bingfang (2012) explores the strategies to improve on English reading instruction for high school students. She thinks that when teachers conduct reading instruction, they should completely handle relations among each of factors, such as vocabularies, strategies, cultures, thinking modes. In 2016, Tan Yaping published A Study on the Stratified Teaching Mode of English Reading in Middle school. In this study, she gave suggestions on English reading instruction in middle school. She claimed that in the process of English reading instruction, teachers should pay attention to these perspectives, the first is that teaching reading skills should be primary concern for teachers; The second is to encourage students to emerge in reading activities more initiatively. Researchers give more aspects about reading instruction in the perspectives of the nature of reading. They think that reading instruction is a process to guide students to gain the authors9 intention and integrate the exist knowledge with new information. In Wang Hongming^ opinion (2016), reading instruction is a complicated process that requires teachers to strengthen students9 ability to grasp important information from the reading materials and to build up interaction between the information and readers themselves.
English instructional design plays a great role in a successful reading instruction. Na Yisha (2003) thinks that instructional design is about how to conduct instruction in more efficient ways. Li Yumei (2009) advocates that instructional design is an effective way for teachers to dig into contents of teaching materials, explore teaching methods, and promote teachers’ professional quality. English instructional design has a key effect on English teaching. Dai Fengming (2012) believes that instructional design can best reflect teachers’ teaching concepts, pedagogical knowledge, teaching responsibility, teaching efficacy, teaching abilities. Therefore, to conduct teaching instructional design in a scientific and rational way is the key to make effective instruction. All the aspects show that instructional design is of great importance to make reading instruction more effectively. Lai Shaochong (2016) believes that the goal of instructional design is to refine teaching contents, adopt appropriate teaching method and make teaching procedures carefully, that is to say, teacher should make the complex problems easily to help students understand and then improve teaching effects. Wang Qiang (2006) thinks that a teaching design is a framework of a lesson in which teachers make advanced decisions about what they hope to achieve and how they would like to achieve it. Zhao Xiaohua (2015) claims that efficient instructional design is a systematic and dynamic plan. The principles for making reading instructional design include, taking modern teaching theories as guidance, analyzing characteristics of teaching objects and teaching methods, clarifying the problems and needs in teaching, determining the teaching objectives, making the solutions for problems and managing teaching resources.
To sum up, English reading instructional design plays an important part in
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English reading teaching which refers to a process of fully interpreting reading materials and students9 needs, that is to say, making reading instructional design is a process to present how deeply teachers interpret teaching materials, how well understandings teachers have about students as well as what kinds of teaching activities teachers apply to achieve their goals. Therefore, it is of necessity to have a reading instructional design.
2.3Theoretical Foundation
2.3.1Holistic Education
In the 1970s, holistic education appeared in North America. It was a pedagogical thought which aimed to promote the overall development of human beings. Ron Miller is the first person who came up with the complete concept of holistic education. Miller (2001:2-4) thinks that holistic education is a kind of education to improve students’ overall development and self-actualization with the combination of cognitive quality and affective quality. In terms of the perspectives of holistic education, human beings do not learn knowledge passively but have potential physical ability and mental ability in their consciousness, cognition and mental development to be educated. Hence, everyone has immeasurable potential which has not been tapped. Education is the way to stimulate and guide learners to accomplish self-development.
Xie Anbang (2014) proposed a hypothesis of learning under the Holistic Education theory. Holistic education provides people with two thinking ways called analytical thinking and systems thinking. Analytical thinking refers to interpret the things by dividing them into the minimum components. In other word, for teachers, teaching is a process to separate teaching materials into the smallest components which can conduce to understand. And for students, study is a process to memorize the new knowledge and recall the old knowledge. The other is thought mode which emphasizes that learning and thinking can be seen as an integral whole which need a complete context to understand specific knowledge. Learners could not learn knowledge without an adequate context.
Holistic education theory can be used in reading instruction. In the opinions of holistic education, before learning knowledge, teachers should activate students’ related background information so that students can build up relationship between knowledge and learning. It gives possibilities for students to establish students9 own knowledge system.
2.3.2Constructivism
Piaget is an important contributor for the concept of Constructivism in the 1970s. He claims that children, in complicated environment, gradually construct knowledge about the external world, so as to develop their own cognitive structure. The interaction between children and the environment involves two basic processes, which refers to assimilation and accommodation. For the cognitive individuals, assimilation and accommodation are two important factors to keep the balance with the surrounding environment. That is to say, when a child can assimilate new information with existing schema, he is in a balanced cognitive state; In contrast, when the existing schema cannot be assimilated with new information, the balance will be destroyed. It causes that the process of finding new balance will appear to modify or create a new schema. Children^ cognitive structure is gradually constructed with the help of assimilation and accommodation, and constantly enriched, improved and developed in the cycle of “balance - imbalance - new balance”. Constructivism is made up of four core conceptions, schema, assimilation, accommodation and equilibration. Schema is the basis and essence of cognitive structure, which refers to the way for an individual perceives to understand and think about the world.
In the learning view of Constructivism, the essence of learning can only be that each student actively constructs according to his or her own experience and knowledge, rather than simply understanding that the teacher imparts knowledge to the student. Students9 learning is a construction activity guided by a teacher in a specific environment. It is a special social construction, which is not an independent individual behavior, but a community of practice behavior. Of course, individual learners have their own uniqueness, but cannot learn without the overall environment of social culture. The social and personal meanings of learning are both different and related, and they are interdependent and mutually reinforcing dialectical relationships. Learners discover the “hymes” by learning the convention of the society, thereby improving their ability to learn.
In the learning view of Constructivism, it holds that teachers are guiders in teaching and they are the organizers of teaching activities. During the instruction, the role of teachers should be a facilitator and an organizer who strive to activate the
enthusiasm of students to Let students have evidence and reasons to follow during the
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learning process. Teachers should appropriately praise students, inspire and encourage students to help them find problems and solve problems. Teachers must be able to reveal the hidden ways of thinking from various paradigms, become concrete, abstract, and then abstract into sensible, learnable, and usable methods.
In the perspective of Constructivism, students are regarded as the center of English instruction that they need to be given more opportunities to think and to learn during the instruction. Whafs more, teachers may attach importance to cultivate students5 abilities of analyzing and problem-solving as well as their creativity. It can encourage students be more confident and subjective initiative. These aspects in Constructivism are similar to those of reading instruction.
From the above, Core Competencies and ESCC aim to improve the cultivation of students5 overall development, which are similar to the connotation of holistic education and Constructivism. So, the perspectives of holistic education and Constructivism are helpful to conduct the understandings of Core Competencies and ESCC. For English subject, reading is a good place to present ESCC. However, it has been a short time since ESCC has been presented. Most of researches on ESCC are to explore its connotation which provides a solid foundation for the following research however, few of researches on ESCC are about its application to the practical teaching. So, it is quite hard for the author to find out more complete researches about how to teach reading through ESCC. This is the limitation that appears in the thesis.


Chapter 3 Research Design
3.1Research Participants
The research participants include English teachers and students from Class 10 and Class 11, Grade 9 in Guiyang No. 17 Middle School. Guiyang No. 17 Middle School is one of key middle schools in Guiyang, and ifs famous for its high teaching quality. It has always been promoting students9 overall development.
There are nineteen English teachers in Guiyang No. 17 Middle School and English teachers have different teaching experience and teaching beliefs. Therefore, the research on ESCC in this school can provide a complete understanding of ESCC in the perspectives of English teachers. For teachers, the author hands out the questionnaires to English teachers to collect the data about how well English teachers acknowledge about ESCC and to investigate its interrelation between ESCC and reading instruction. Besides, the author interviews the teacher who taught in the EC, Ms. Zhou, to obtain the detailed and accurate information about her opinions about changes of reading instruction in the perspective of ESCC before and after the experiment. The contents of questionnaires and interview will be attached in the appendix.
The author chooses the students from two classes in Grade 9 in Guiyang No. 17 Middle School as the research participants for the following reasons, firstly, students in Grade 9 have learnt English for nearly 5 years, and some of the students have a certain foundation in English learning, and they have mastered some learning skills. Then, they know something about traditional cultures of Chinese and English countries, and may have a strong interest in them. Finally, during reading instruction, students are willing to express their own ideas and demonstrate their communicative competence, and to share and cooperate with each other in the process of communication.
In Guiyang No. 17 Middle School, there are eleven classes in Grade 9. The author chooses the students in Class 10, Grade 9 as an EC to do the research. There are fifty-one students in this class, including twenty-five boys and twenty-six girls. In the last final examination organized by Guiyang Bureau of Education, they are ranked at second of eleven classes. The average language proficiency of the students in the EC is at the middle and upper level of Grade 9. Class 11 is chosen as the CC of the research which includes forty-nine students, and students in the CC are ranked third of eleven classes. So, the students from both EC and the CC have the similar English level. Students in Grade 9 have learned English for five years and they have a certain amount of vocabularies. In addition, most of the students have learned traditional culture and customs of other foreign countries. The research concentrates to students5 reading abilities that accounts for a large proportion in the senior high school entrance examination, aiming to improving their reading comprehension.
3.2Research Methods
In this thesis, the main research methods are literature review method and contrastive analysis method.
Literature review method is to collect materials about the current or historical status of research subjects in a purposeful and systematic manner. By means of literature review method, the author tries to collect the research on ESCC and English reading instructional design from core journals. It aims to have a basic foundation of the two concepts. The author has collected a lot of literature and had a summary about the research results. The research of literature review has a huge reference and theoretical basis.
Contrastive analysis method is a method to compare the data collected before and after the experiment to gain the results of the research. The author applies this method in the research instrument of pre-test and post-test to find out if reading instructional design based on ESCC can help students to improve their reading competence. Also, the author makes use of this method to investigate students9 changes in English reading before and after the experiment. This method gives a credible support to the results of the test and the second research question.
3.3Research Instruments
3.3.1Questionnaire
Two questionnaires are presented in this thesis. One is used for students to have a basic understanding of students5 opinions about reading classes, the other aims to collect the data about how well teachers know about ESCC and teachers’ opinions of reading teaching through ESCC.
Questionnaire for teachers is composed of nineteen multiple choice questions and Questionnaire for students is composed of thirteen questions. Each of the questions has four answers for teachers and students to choose, but only one answer can be chosen. The two questionnaires are written in Chinese aiming to help research participants to understand accurately and completely. These two questionnaires will be presented in the appendix.
Questionnaire for teachers aims to know how well English teachers in middle school know about ESCC and reading instructional design and their relationships. This questionnaire designed by the author includes three parts. The first part includes eleven questions those are to research teachers9 understandings of ESCC in the perspective of reading teaching. The second part including eight questions aims to know teachers9 attitudes about reading instructional designs. The last part is designed with the purpose of knowing how English teachers combine ESCC with English instruction.
Questionnaire for students designed by the author is handed out to 100 students who come from the EC and the CC in Guiyang No. 17 Middle School. It is used to investigate students5 English reading level and their understanding of English reading class. Also, each question in this questionnaire interrelates with four parts of ESCC to know the current status of English reading that students are in.
3.3.2Test
Test is the second research instrument adopted in this research. It aims to get more accurate data to know if students9 English reading scores can be affected through taught in English reading by the reading instructional design based on the ESCC.
The test is consisted of two tests, one is pre-test which is before the experiment and the other is post-test which is after the experiment. Whafs more, in order to get more reliable results of the two tests, the two tests are chosen from students5 final exams which are designed by Guiyang Bureau of Education. The scores of the two tests are both from students9 final examinations. In addition, students9 achievements of pre-test are from the final examination in the second semester of Grade 8. Meanwhile, their English scores in the first semester of Grade 9 are the results after the experiment. In the pre-test and post-test, there are fifteen questions which include
three types, they are 10 questions to do the multiple choices and 5 questions to restore
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the sentences which are missing or to capture the key information and fill in the blanks.
3.3.3Interview
The last research instrument is the interview. Interview will be divided into two parts. One is the interview for the English teacher of the EC, Ms. Zhou, and the other is for students that five students will be chosen from the EC. And the interviews are the supplementary of questionnaires to know more detailed information about students9 opinions about reading in this semester.
The first interview for Ms. Zhou includes four questions that are about English reading teaching and ESCC. There are three reasons to hold this interview. Firstly, the author wants to know Ms. Zhou?s comprehension about ESCC; Secondly, the author may research the differences between Ms. Zhou9 traditional reading instruction and new reading instruction which is based on the English reading instructional design in the perspective of ESCC; Thirdly, ifs to know the changes that new reading instruction brings. Question 1 and 2 is to know the teachers9 ideas about ESCC, question 3 is to investigate how Ms. Zhou teaches reading before the research, and question 4 is to know her opinions about new reading instruction and her understanding about the relationship of ESCC and reading instruction. Her answers will be written down which shows in the appendix.
The second interview consists of three questions. This interview is for students in the EC, including three girls and two boys. From this interview, the author tries to find out the differences that students show in English reading class before and after the experiment as well as students9 opinions about English reading class in this semester. Question 1 to 3 is to figure out students9 variations in three aspects. Question 1 refers to students5 reading interests, question 2 involves in students5 reading skills and reading methods, and question 3 refers to students5 other changes in reading instruction.
3.4Research Implementation
In order to explore the status of ESCC in Guiyang No. 17 Middle School and the result after conducting the English instructional design based on ESCC, the procedure of implementation is divided into three stages. They are the preparatory stage, the experimental stage and analysis stage.
During the preparatory stage, the author designed two questionnaires which are for English teachers and students in middle school and the questionnaires were handed out in September, 2018. The author aims to know how well English teachers in middle school know about ESCC and reading instructional design so that questionnaires for teachers have been designed based on the following factors. First, the answer of the questionnaires should show how well English teachers in middle school know about ESCC and what teachers9 opinions about relationship among four parts of ESCC. Whafs more, teachers9 understandings of the connection between ESCC and reading instruction should be presented by the answer of the questionnaire which can be known if teachers apply ESCC in teachers9 reading instructional design. At last, the result of questionnaires needs demonstrate teachers9 understanding about reading instructional design. In the questionnaire for teachers, there are nineteen questions which are designed based on the purposes as mentioned above. Through the questionnaires for students, the author investigates students5 reading competence and then to get a general understanding about the students in EC and CC. It should be stressed that the students from both the EC and the CC have similar reading competence, which is also one of the preconditions for this research. Also, the author tries to know how students think about English reading teaching they have before the experiment. The survey for the conditions of reading teaching in the EC and the CC needs to include students9 reading attitudes, reading strategies, reading skills they have before the research. In addition, the author may know if English teachers make use of ESCC during reading instruction. The third step is that the author starts to investigate English textbook of PEP edition and begins to make English reading instructional designs based on ESCC which include fourteen reading instructional designs in the mid of August, and the author get some suggestions about all reading instructional designs based on ESCC from my tutor in Guiyang No. 17 Middle School. Each of English reading instructional designs based on ESCC will be used when the new semester comes in reading classes. So, the preparatory stage lasts nearly two months.
At the experimental stage, there are four steps that the author plans to do. Firstly,
the questionnaires for students will be handed out in September, 2018. It should be
emphasized that the results of questionnaires for students are the first data before the
experiment. Secondly, there are 19 English teachers in Guiyang No. 17 Middle School
and those teachers with different teaching experience and teaching time, so teachers
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will have different comprehension about ESCC and reading instructional design. Hence, the author will hand out 19 questionnaires for English teachers in Guiyang No. 17 Middle School in the September, 2018 to get the data about teachers’ ideas of relationship among ESCC, reading instruction and reading instructional design. In September, two results of questionnaires for English teachers and students will be collected. Thirdly, in July and August, the author starts to make reading instructional design based on ESCC with tutor’s help. During the process of making reading instructional design, the tutor and the author firstly analyze the reading materials and the analysis of students in the EC? identify the emphasis and difficulties of reading instruction. Then draw up teaching objectives based on ESCC, so teaching objectives will be divided into four parts. After these, teaching activities and teaching procedures will be composed completely. Teaching reflection will be completed after reading instruction. All the reading instructional designs from unit 1 to unit 7 will be completed in the mid of August, 2018. In September, reading instructional designs made before will be arranged to apply in the reading classroom as follows. In the first two week, reading of section A {How I learned to Learn English) and section B {How can You Become a Successful Learner?) in unit 1 will be taught; Reading of section A {Full Moon, Full Feelings) and section B {The Spirit of Christmas) in unit 2 will be finished in the third and the fourth week; Reading of section A {Fun Times Park) and section B {Couldyou please...?) in unit 3 will be taught in the sixth and the seventh week. Two reading materials {From Shy Girl to Pop Star and He Studies Harder Than He Used to) in unit 4 will be finished in the ninth and tenth week; In the twelfth and the thirteenth week, the teacher will teach reading of unit 5 (The Difficult Search for American Products in the US and Beauty in Common Things)', In the fourteenth and the fifteenth week, students in the EC will learn reading about An Accidental Invention and Do You Know When Basketball Was Invented? in unit 6. The last unit which includes two reading materials of Mom Knows Best and Should I Be Allowed to Make My Own Decisions? will be completed in the seventeenth and the eighteenth week. So to speak, it is important to show how reading instructional design based on the ESCC may be applied in the English reading instruction, so the author will take reading From Shy Girl to Pop Star in unit 4 as a teaching example and this reading instruction will be presented briefly in the next section. In addition, course arrangements about reading in the EC are similar to those in the CC. During the experiment, the author gets a reading instructional design about From Shy Girl to Pop
Star in unit 4 in the CC. In this instructional design, it shows that the teacher in the CC sets teaching objectives according to three-dimensional aims. After getting this reading instructional design made by the teacher in the CC? the author serves as an observer to take part in the reading classroom in the CC and grasps the reading procedures and reading contents this class has presented. The author finds that the teacher in the CC pays more attention to studenfs comprehension of reading materials and she spends more time in interpreting language points and reading contents. In November, 2018, the author plans to conduct two interviews for both students and Ms. Zhou. For the interview for students, the author will design based on the results of questionnaire to get the changes that students in the EC have during the experiment. After finished this part, the author will hand out the interviews for the students in the end of the experiment. So in December 2018, the author will randomly choose 5 students out of 51 students in the EC to complete the interview for 3 questions. The author may take recordings and write down the notes which will present in the appendix. At the end of December, the author will interview the teacher in the EC, Ms. Zhou, to get her understanding about ESCC and reading instruction as well as their relationship, and know her adaption of her reading instruction before and after the experiment. Also, the interview for Ms. Zhou will be presented in the appendix. In January 2019, the students9 scores of post-test will be collected and they will only include the scores in the reading part in order to clearly know about the changes of students5 reading achievements before and after the experiment.
In the analysis stage, the questionnaires, interviews and students9 achievements both in the pre-test and post-test are checked and analyzed carefully to get the results of the research in January, 2019. And the data from these three research instruments will be analyzed one by one. According to the analysis of the collected data, some major findings will be shown and the data may reveal the findings for two research questions. In addition, based on the analysis and discussions of the collected data and research questions, pedagogical suggestions will be appeared to provide English teachers with some new understandings about the interrelation among ESCC, reading instructional design and English reading.
3.5A Teaching Example
A teaching example is presented in this part to demonstrate the conducting
procedure of the reading instructional design which is made upon the ESCC. In this
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part, the author will explain the relationship between ESCC and the reading instructional design by showing how four dimensions of ESCC are applied to the design of reading instructional activities.
The specific steps will be described as follow:
Stage One Pre-reading Step 1 Make a guessing game
Teacher shows pictures of famous stars students like when stars were young, and let students guess who they are. And then teacher shows stars9 current pictures and their names to check if students get the right answer.
(Intention: two dimensions of ESCC, learning ability and linguistic competence are shown in this step. Firstly, the guessing game is easy for teachers to handle and it may attract students’ attention to guess what they have seen. And when students look at the title of the text, they must be curious about the stories happened on a girl. Secondly, during this guessing game, students need to observe the pictures, listen to others’ answers and express their own ideas. So there are three language skills will be involved, including listening, speaking and viewing. So, the purpose of this activity is to activate students’ background knowledge, make preparation for the next step as well as cultivate a part of students’ 
  
train some about linguistic competence.)
Yang Mi
Step 2 Predict the content of this reading
Teacher shows a picture about Candy Wang and asks students if they know who the girl is and if they want to know the girl’s stories. After students’ discussion, teacher tells them the answer about those two questions. And then teacher asks all the students to read the title of the reading to all the students and try to predict the content of this reading.

FROM SHY 6IEL TO POP STAR
Do you know the beautiful and outgoing girl?
She’s the famous singer Candy A^ang.
Do you want to know her story?

(Intention: in this step, students will be full of curiosity about the girl and her stories that they may not know. This activity can help students to build up a new relation between the girl and students. Warming-up with some discussions which are related to the topic of reading can draw students’ attention to the text. While students read this title, their background information will broad to help them predict how the girl becomes a pop star. This activity can train students’ learning ability to predict and improve their reading strategies.)
Stage Two While-reading
Step 1 Read the whole paragraphs quickly.
Teacher asks students to read the whole paragraphs in a short time and complete the reading task with 1-3. In the process of finishing this task, students can share their answers with others.
how Candy’ life has changed
Candy’s advice to young people
Candy’s background
(Intention: in this step, learning ability and thinking quality are required to develop. Firstly, students are led to take a fast reading and then to find out the main idea of each paragraph. It aims to train students’ learning ability of catching key information with reading skills of scanning and skipping. And then, in the first stage, students has made the predictions about the title so that their background information has been activated, and then they can have a general understanding of this reading materials and can think about the structure of this reading material through the information they have gained. In this activity, it aims to improve students’ reading speed, cultivate students’ reading skills of scanning and catch key information,

analyze the information students gains to know the author’writing thoughts.)
Step 2 Read the first paragraph and answer questions.
Teacher gives students several minutes to find out the answers for the following questions. And then, students are encouraged to share their answers with each other.
How old is Candy Wang?
Why did she begin to sing?
What is she like now?
(Intention: This part is related to learning ability and linguistic competence. After reading the whole paragraphs, students have known the main idea of each paragraph so that students can get the answers quickly. This activity aims to cultivate students,reading skills of fast reading, students’ reading strategies of catching information and train students’ language skills.、
Step 3 Read the second paragraph and fill in the chart.
Teacher asks students to read the second paragraph carefully and fill in the chart.
((II)
Goad, things Bcid things
1.Always liave to worry about liow she appears to others.
2.Have to be careful about what she says or does.
3.Don9t have mucli private time anymore.
4.Xhere are always guards around her.
(Intention: In this part, learning ability, linguistic competence and thinking quality will be involved. In this step, firstly, students are required to summarize the content in paragraph two in order to gain the information,and it can train students’ reading abilities to extract the information and guess the phrase meanings according to the context, and this step is to cultivate students’ learning strategies and learning skills. And then, when students take part in this reading activity, they may mobilize their own linguistic competence of reading, viewing and language points to complete this activity. Thirdly, this reading activity is to find out the good things and the bad things which can make a contrast to know that things have two sides so that they can keep a critical thinking about super stars.)

Step 4 Read the third paragraph and fill in the blanks.
Teacher asks students to have a detailed reading to fill in the blanks. And teacher can encourage students to guess the meaning of phrase “the road to success”.
-4, Read the third paragraph and ^ fill in the blanks.
Candy^s advice to young people who want to become lamousi
1.People have to bo prepared to
tip your normal life-
2.V〇u nevrer imu^ine how difficult
(Intention: in this step, linguistic competence and learning ability are shown. Teacher helps students to search for the information and fill the blanks. What’s more, ifs practical for teacher to help students to master some words they don}t know by guessing according to the context, “the road to success” is a new phrase for students, and they can guess the meaning of this phase by the word uroad,} and usuccess^ which the students have already known. After finishing this reading task, students can get the main idea and the details of this paragraph, and learn some new phrases by themselves. In addition, when students fill in the blanks, reading, viewing and grammar will be adopted by the students in order to get the right answers. In this way, students’ linguistic competence and learning ability can be developed.)
Step 5 Learn the new words and phrases with classmates.
Teacher gives students 4 minutes to underline the words, phrases students don’t understand and then ask them to learn them in a group. If students still have difficulties on understanding the new words and phrases, students can present them in blackboard to have a discussion together.
(Intention: the purpose for step includes is to develop students’ linguistic competence, learning ability and thinking quality. In this part, teacher can guide students to have a group work to learn new words and phrases by working collaboratively which can cultivate their abilities of cooperation (linguistic competence and learning ability). Students are regarded as the center of the whole reading class, so the teacher can give them more time to learn how to deal with the
problems they met. It is beneficial for students to improve students’ ability to analyze and solve problems, and to form a habit to think about problems they met independently. And this activity puts less on interpreting the language points but training students how to read. It also can improve students ’ thinking quality.)
Stage Three Post-reading
Step 1 Discuss on Candy’s life
■ work
3c Suppose you are the interviewer and your partner is Candy. Ask and answer questions.
1.What were you like? Were you good at singing when you were very young?
2.How was your life different after you become famous?
3.What5s your advice to all those young people who want to become famous?
Teacher summarizes the reading content students learnt and then guide students have a pair work in 3c.
(Intention: this part is to sublime thinking quality and cultural disposition. In this step, students have a overall understanding of this reading material so that they can know something about Candy and Candy’s life. This activity can let students have a discussion about the three questions and then students can answer these questions with their own words. It can improve students’ ability to make a judgement about things they meet and express their ideas and then their thinking quality will be cultivated to comprehend the logical structure of this reading material. As for cultural disposition,students’ correct view about life and the proper values may be formed through reading the story about Candy.)
Introduce a pop star from foreign countries and write his or her stories about how he or she becomes famous.
(Intention: teacher does more things to cultivate students} linguistic competence, learning ability and thinking quality, but it^s difficult to implement cultural disposition in this reading material. So this homework is a chance to help students to learn the stories about other pop stars from different countries. When students start to learn about foreign pop stars, they may find something that can encourage students in their learning or their life. This is also a way to cultivate students’ cultural disposition.)
From the above, it can be shown that the author makes an instructional design based on ESCC and take it into practice. In this teaching, the teacher regards students as the center of the class and tries to involve all the dimensions of ESCC into all the activities to cultivate students9 four parts of ESCC. In this class, students are more interested in taking part in reading activities and willing to answer the questions that teacher asks. And in the process of reading, students can underline the word, phrases or sentences the don’t know and they can solve them by themselves in reading by reading strategies of guessing, speculating according to the context and asking classmates and the teacher for help. In this reading class, students learnt reading abilities without consciousness. Although, linguistic competencies is of importance in teaching but it is not the most important any more. Teachers can reach the target of linguistic competencies in the process of completing the reading activities. So, teachers need to pay attention to other three parts of ESCC which can be achieved in the process of reading instruction.
Chapter 4 Analysis and Discussion of Research Results
4.1Analysis of the Questionnaire
In September, 2018, the author handed out the questionnaires to 100 students and 19 English teachers were invited to complete the questionnaires. And then there are 99 valid pieces of questionnaires for students and 19 valid pieces of questionnaires for English teachers. In the following, the author will analyze the collected data based on the questionnaires for students and for English teachers.
4.1.1Analysis of Questionnaire for Students
According to the collected data, the results of questionnaires for students will be presented in the following. Table 4.1 includes the results of 13 questions. Question 1 to 2 is to investigate students9 English proficiency. The answer of Question 1 shows that 66.7% of the students can get English achievements which are above 80 points. 28.3% of the students can gain the scores from 60 points to 70 points. Only 5% of students fail the exam which are blew 60 points. From the results of question 2, it can be known that 76.7% of the students can read extracurricular English materials at the similar level as the reading materials in the textbook, and ifs quiet hard for 22.2% of the students to comprehend English reading materials in the textbook, and only 1% cannot completely understand the English materials in the textbooks. So from question two, most of the students have a good basis of learning English. Question 3 to 4 is to investigate students9 ideas about English reading class. From table 1, it can be seen that 27.3% of the students think that ifs too boring in the reading classroom, that’s the reason why they don’t like English reading class. While 55.6% of the students think that they can improve their linguistic competence in the reading class, but it is not interesting enough. Only 17.2% of the students like English reading class because it can improve students9 reading competence. Question 4 shows that 60.6% of the students can listen to teachers carefully and take notes consciously during the whole reading class. But 15.2% of the students are not willing to take part in classroom activities, and about 24.2% of the students want to do other things they like instead of listening to teachers.
Table 4. 1 Percentage of Option Distribution in Questionnaire for Students


Questions 5 to 13 are designed according to four dimensions of ESCC. Question 5 shows that 53.5% of the students can use some reading strategies and skills to finish reading materials. However, about 46.5% of the students choose to do reading comprehension in a traditional way such as reading word by word and then finding the answers. Question 6 and 7 embody that most of students don’t have a habit to write down or recite some beautiful sentences or articles only if the teachers require them to do so. Only 37.4% of the students are willing to recite the excellent articles if those articles can help them to develop their writing and language sense. For question 8, 75.8% of the students have interests in different culture which includes different expressions, customs and historical stories of other foreign countries. Only 24.2% of the students are not interested in the culture. Questions 9 to 11 are designed for checking students’ learning abilities. Question 9 is to investigate students’ attitudes towards reading classroom. The results are shown that ifs difficult for 69.7% of students to take initiative to answer teachers9 questions during the reading instruction, while only 30.3% of students often or sometimes answer teachers9 questions actively.
The results of question 10 and 11 reveal that only 12.1% and 15.2% of the students give up solving the problems they met or teachers put forward. 87.9% and 84.8% of the students will solve the problems in different ways. Results of question 12 indicate that 50.5% of students lack of initiative in learning extracurricular reading materials. In question 13, it can be seen that most of students have different requires on English reading class. They prefer to improve reading skills and methods as well as to supplement some cultural background information rather than language points.
4.1.2Analysis of Questionnaire for Teachers
The first questionnaire for English teachers aims to investigate the current status about the application of ESCC in this school.
There are 18 objective items which are all multiple choices in this questionnaire. All the questions are designed based on ESCC. In addition, the questions are designed to find out the current situations of ESCC from both practical and theoretical aspects. Thus, ifs reliable to evaluate the fundamental situation of ESCC of English teachers in Guiyang No. 17 Middle School by analyzing the questionnaires.
From table 4.2, it can be known that how well English teachers in Guiyang No. 17 Middle School know about ESCC, the current situations of ESCC, and teachers9 ideas about both ESCC and English reading instructional designs. For question 1? it can be seen that 94.7% of teachers think they have a basic understanding of ESCC. Questions 2 to 5 are about the comparison among four dimensions of ESCC. In question 2, 68.4% of the teachers think that linguistic competence is the most important in all the dimensions of ESCC, while about 15.8% of the teachers put learning competence and thinking quality into the first place, but none of teachers consider cultural disposition as an important teaching objective. Question 3 is asking about the easiest dimension that teachers think they can apply in teaching. However, teachers have different ideas about the easiest dimension which cannot be used in English teaching. In teachers’ opinions, 47.4% of the teachers think linguistic competence is the easiest to apply in teaching, while 26.3% of the teachers put the cultural disposition in the first. Question 4 is asking about the most difficult dimension to handle in daily teaching, interestingly, linguistic competence, learning abilities and thinking qualities are sharing same percentage, 31.6%, and only 5.3% of the teachers take cultural disposition as the most difficult to apply in their teaching. 63.2% of the teachers believe that thinking quality is the one that can be ignored easily in daily teaching, and 10.5% and 26.3% of the teachers regard linguistic competence and learning abilities as the one that is easy to be ignored. From question 7, the result indicates that 42.5% of the teachers9 put more emphasis on linguistic competence in English reading teaching, while 10.5%, 21.1% and 26.3% of the teachers attach more importance to cultural disposition, thinking quality and learning abilities. 52.6% of the teachers paid much attention on cultivating students5 abilities to get good scores and students’ linguistic competence. However,47.4% of teachers lay stress on cultivating students9 thinking quality. Question 9 is about teachers9 ways to teach vocabularies during reading instruction, 42.1% of teachers prefer teaching vocabularies separately, on the contrary, 31.6% of teachers choose to teaching vocabularies based on the context, because the teachers believe that teaching vocabularies in context is helpful for students to memorize and understand the vocabularies and materials. In question 10, 100% of the teachers think ifs necessary to provide students with the cultural background information which is beneficial for students to understand the different culture between western countries and China. 94.7% of teachers express that most of students are willing to involve in classroom discussion, but few students have full interests in class. From question 12 to 13, it can be reflected that 42.1% of teachers think that cultivating students9 thinking quality needs to be taken as the starting point, while 26.3% of teachers think the purpose to cultivate students’ abilities is to get good grades. Also, 68.4% of teachers organize learning activities such as group works and autonomous learning once a week.
Questions 14 to 18 are about English reading instructional designs. In question 14, 63.2% of teachers believe that the definition of instructional design is similar to the definition of the teaching plan. While, 36.8% of the teachers claim that teaching procedures are more important than other parts among instructional designs. From question 16, ifs easy to know that 57.9% of teachers pay no attention to instructional designs which have less position in their teaching. In addition, 31.6% of teachers can complete more than 80% of contents which are based on the instructional design they did, while 68.4% of teachers can finish less than 80% of contents they design in their instructional designs. From the results of question 18, 26.3% of the teachers think effective instructional activities can be presupposed based on the reading instructional design, and 52.6% of teachers think that instructional designs are the way to help them to optimize the teaching contents, but 10.5% of the teachers claim that there are uncertain factors that instructional designs cannot be predicted, and also 10.5% of the teachers argue that they will be controlled if they make instructional designs.
Table 4.2 Percentage of Option Distribution in Questionnaire for Students


4.2Analysis of the Interview
In this section, two interviews will be analyzed which include the interview for students and for the teacher in the EC, Ms. Zhou. The contents of two interviews will
be presented in the appendix.
4.2.1Analysis of Interview for Students
The author chose 5 students from 51 students to have an interview about their ideas of English reading class. The five students have different levels language proficiency. The interview involves in three questions and the content will be shown in the appendix. The analysis of interviews may be presented as follows.
(1)Analysis of the First Interview Question
Facing the first interview question ""Do you think English reading class in this semester is interesting? And why?" five students have the similar opinions about this question. Most of them indicate that reading classroom in the last semester is much more boring than it in this semester, because teachers spend more time in interpreting vocabularies and grammar, and spend less time in promoting students9 reading skills and strategies. That is to say, teachers draw more attention to strengthen students5 linguistic competence. However, the teacher has changed in this semester. Student Ma and Zhao think, in the past, what they learnt from reading classes come from translating and interpreting language points which were so boring. But in this semester, they have more chances to answer a lot of different reading questions raised in the reading class, which makes them feel that reading becomes simple and interesting. While Student Wu and student Zhao express that reading instruction in this semester is more interesting than it in the last semester. The teacher provides students’ more time for completing reading tasks related to reading materials, and more interaction that shows in the reading class. It makes students become active to take part in reading activities and the era of reading class is more positive. From student Chen, she implies that she is not good at reading, but Ms. Zhou sets reading activities with different levels from easy to difficult, so she can answer some of the questions or finish some reading tasks once in a while. At that moment, she feels she like reading class. Therefore, students like reading class in this semester more than it in the last.
(2)Analysis of the Second Interview Question
According to the answer to question two "Do you think it is beneficial for your reading skills in the reading classroom in this semester? If the answer is yes, can you give some examples to prove it?" According to students9 answers, what students are
willing to be improved are divided into two aspects. Firstly, student Ma and student
32
Wang prefer to enhance their vocabularies which can be good for their comprehension of the sentences and the whole reading texts. These two students point out that the teacher does not teach new words one by one for a long time, but she puts new words into reading materials and translate words in different phrases or sentences to improve their vocabularies. Meanwhile, the teacher helps them to guess about the meaning new words according to the context. Those methods may solve students9 problems in guessing the meaning of unknown vocabularies and be beneficial to enhance students9 understanding about phrases and sentence patterns. Secondly, most of students hope to improve their reading skills such as enhancing reading speed, ability of searching for key information, to reduce the reading difficulties. Reading skills are of significance when students take part in reading activities. So, for students, they are willing to have their reading skills improved. Students hope get teachers9 assistant on how to use reading skills such as scanning, skipping and guessing to improve students9 comprehension, and hope the teacher can help them to analyze the reading structures in order to grasp the author9 purpose. After getting these instructions, students feel confident when they get a reading material, and they can handle the texts more efficiently.
(2) Analysis of the Third Interview Question
The third question is "Except reading attitudes and reading skills you have gained, what else you want to get from the reading classes?" Answers for this question are different. According to student Ma and Wang, they become more confident in English learning, since they can answer some questions correctly. After become more confident in reading, they are more willing to take part in reading activities, and they cherish the chances given by the teacher, and they feel that English reading becomes easier. For student Wu, he thinks that the reading becomes really enjoyable when he cooperates with classmates to solve some problems together. To student Zhao and Chen, what impress them a lot is that they become more interested in reading classroom, and it makes them feel relaxed when they have reading lessons. From students5 answers, the most clearly is that they become more active in reading class, and their willingness to take part in reading activities become stronger than before. Also, some reading skills that the teacher blends in reading teaching may conduce to students’ reading effects.
To sum up, the reading classes which involve ESCC in English reading teaching
can make students be more active in reading classes and their reading interests may be
33
much higher as well as is helpful for students to cultivate linguistic competence, learning abilities, cultural disposition and thinking quality.
4.2.2Analysis of Interview for Ms. Zhou
The first interview is for the teacher of the EC, Ms. Zhou. There are four questions in this interview. The author aims to know the changes before the experiment and after the experiment. The author takes notes and writes down the interviewee^ answers shown in the appendix. The analysis of interview presents as follow.
(1)Analysis of the First Interview Question
The first question is “What’s your understanding of English Subject Core Competencies?'% Ms. Zhou expresses her opinion about it.
Ms. Zhou expresses that after ESCC presented, she knows a little about it. But in this new semester, she gets a deep understanding of ESCC that gives the author more detailed information about ESCC. She has indicated the main contents of four parts of ESCC, linguistic competence is the basis including listening, reading, speaking and writing. Cultural disposition is to teach students to realize and accept different culture of different countries. Learning abilities are the abilities to know how to learn which contains learning strategies, learning skills, learning interests and so on. The last is thinking quality which points to use an English thinking way to think about things.
(2)Analysis of the Second Interview Question
For Question two, "Whatfs the relationship among four parts of ESCC?" Ms. Zhou thinks that all of the four dimensions of ESCC are important and they should be developed at the same time, and none of them should be ignored or developed without the interaction of three other parts. For example, linguistic competence is the basic part of ESCC and thinking quality is developed by other three parts. But in classroom teaching, different kinds of classes have different key points, so ifs possible that one of four parts of ESCC can be the key point to complete the class, while other parts help it to make the classroom teaching richer and more effective.
(3)Analysis of the Third Interview Question
Ms. Zhou expresses her opinions about Question three "Before this semester, how do you teach reading? How is the effectiveness of English reading teaching? And what’s the performance of students in the class? ”
In previous reading teaching, Ms. Zhou always teaches by lecture-based method,
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and she combined lecture-based method with the reading teaching mode of 3P. In order to enhance students9 understandings of the reading materials, she used some reading exercises in the textbook during pre-reading while-reading and post-reading activities. Also, more emphasis was placed on improving students5 language knowledge, so the atmosphere in the classroom was not particularly active, and the enthusiasm of students was not particularly high enough. However, from the feedback in class and after class, students’ language knowledge has been improved a lot.
(4)Analysis of the Fourth Interview Question
For Question 4 "'In this semester, you applied English reading instructional design based on ESCC to reading teaching, what kind of changes has it brought to your reading teaching?" Ms. Zhou claims that it changed a lot in her reading teaching. First of all, it has changed the traditional concept which means that linguistic knowledge is the most important part in English teaching. A successful reading lesson is not only pointed to master linguistic knowledge, but also to understand the meanings behind the text and to learn effective and useful reading methods and reading skills. Therefore, when doing reading instructional design, the four aspects of the core literacy of English subjects should be taken full consideration, which need to combine it with reading activities to make it more effective, so that students can participate in the reading class. Another change is about students. When students had a reading class, most of them listen to teachers and took notes carefully but they were not active enough, and they show little interests in reading classes. However, during this semester, Ms. Zhou designs different reading activities which can be finished by students who have different reading levels. When students try to answer the reading questions mentioned in reading, they will compete with each other. And after completing those reading activities, students become more active and more confident in the reading activities, and they are very happy to participate in the classroom activities. Students enjoy learning with partners, discussing and finding out answers together. Whafs more, students have a strong interest in learning.
4.3Analysis of the Test
As mentioned in the above chapter, the two tests are the final exams students have which are arranged by Guiyang Bureau of Education that are valid enough to get the data. The EC has 51 students and the CC has 49 students.
Pre-test and Post-test include three types of questions, they are single choice,
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sentence reduction and the question of capturing information. There is a total of 15 points in these two tests. In order to easily observe the change of data, all the scores are only composed of the reading part.
Before the experiment, the author gets all the first reading scores of students in the EC and the CC. From the data, the author finds that the average of the reading scores from the EC is 7.5 of 15 scores, and the average from the CC is 8.2. The average of the EC is lower than the CC.
During the experiment, the author makes the reading instructional design with the guidance of my tutor to create the reading class that correspond to the four dimensions of ESCC.
After the experiment, the average of the reading scores of the EC is about 9.57 of 15 scores, and the average from the CC is 9.22. The average score of the EC is about 0.3 higher than the scores of the CC.
From the data of pre-test and post-test, it can be seen that the EC get a little progress on the reading and the average changes from 7.5 to 9.57 which nearly improves 2 points. Thus, applying the reading instructional design with the contents of ESCC in classroom teaching is conductive to reading teaching which can develop students5 reading scores.
4.4Discussions of the Research Questions
4.4.1Discussion of the First Research Question
Based on the feedback of questionnaires for English teachers, several problems have been presented.
Firstly, most of English teachers in middle school have a basic understanding of ESCC. They know that ESCC is composed of four parts and basic definitions of these four parts. In their opinions, on one thing, linguistic competence is the most important among other three parts which can be seen that teachers pay more attention to cultivating students5 linguistic competence. They always make full use of reading materials to teach language points which are deeply influenced by test-oriented education. Whafs more, thinking quality which is put forward in ESCC also attracts teachers9 eyes. It is considered as an important part but hard to apply in teaching. Thus, when nearly half of teachers make instructional designs, they will take them into consideration to facilitate students to have a right thinking. However, it is far from
ideal to apply reading instructional designs to the reading instruction. In the perspective of the cultural disposition, most of teachers agree that ifs helpful for students to know some background information about different culture from western countries and it can improve students, cultural awareness, but few teachers will give students a comprehensive introduction of different cultures for each reading materials due to the time limits. From questionnaire for teachers, it can be shown that teachers pay less attention to cultivating students9 learning ability and they concentrate much on linguistic competence. Therefore, middle school English teachers focus more on one of four parts of ESCC, and ignore the importance to integrate all the parts of ESCC. And English teachers in the middle school emphasize the importance of linguistic competence which cause that four parts of ESCC could not keep a balance through development of students5 reading competence. And from the results of questionnaire, it may present that teachers in middle school has difficulties to cultivate studenfs cultural disposition, thinking quality and learning ability in reading classes.
Secondly, teachers hold misunderstanding of English instructional design. Most of English teachers think that instructional designs are similar to teaching plans which have a misunderstanding of these two items. They think that instructional design act as a role to deal with the teaching contents and give some general steps to complete reading teaching, rather than making teaching classes more effectively as well as guiding the reading teaching. Most of teachers do not have habits on making English reading instructional design and most of them think that ifs unnecessary to make instructional design for each teaching hour. The result shows that teachers in middle school ignore the preparation of English class, thafs because the teachers neglect the importance of English instructional designs.
Although, ESCC has been put forward since 2017, the status of reading instruction based on is not ideal that teachers do not have a clear understanding of English reading instructional design and ESCC. ESCC is too abstract for the teachers to handle. And it is not easy for the teachers to handle the relationship among English reading instructional design, ESCC and the reading class appropriately.
4.4.2Discussion of the Second Research Question
Based on the feedback of questionnaires, interviews and the results of the test for
students, it is clear that English reading instructional design based on ESCC affects
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English reading teaching in middle school.
Firstly, middle school students9 interests have been increased. In previous reading class, students think English reading class is not interesting enough that teachers spend most of time in translating and interpreting the language points and grammar which cause most of students lose interests in English reading class. During the experiment, the teacher analyzes reading materials deeply and design elaborative reading activities to make reading become more attractive which can arouse students5 curiosity to search for the answer. After that, students will become more active in English reading class and they are willing to take part in reading classes to finish reading activities teacher gave so that the atmosphere of reading instruction will be beneficial for students5 development.
Secondly, middle school students5 reading attitudes have been changed a lot. In previous reading class, students are more passive in English learning. The goal for learning is to get high scores instead of to learn language itself. Ifs not good for students to form a right attitude towards English learning; meanwhile students cannot understand the meaning of learning correctly. Actually, English is not only a subject for students to learn, but also the language which helps students to cultivate cultural disposition, thinking quality and learning abilities. After the experiment, the results of interviews and tests show that students become more active in English reading class. They prefer the reading classes which involve in different activities with different levels of difficulty to help them get the knowledge the authors show and to train their reading strategies and reading competence. Whafs more, students become more active in reading class and they are interested in reading who are willing to read more extracurricular reading materials.
Thirdly, middle school students5 awareness to use reading strategies and reading skills have increased. From the result of questionnaire for students, nearly half of students still read materials word by word, and students lack of awareness to use some reading skills to improve their reading comprehension. After the experiment is finished, the author finds that middle school students have the awareness of using reading skills, such as scanning, and skimming, and finding out the key information. In addition, comparing with the results of pre-test and post-test, the reading scores of the EC are higher than the scores of the CC which show that English reading instruction based on ESCC can improve students5 reading scores.
So, the reading instruction based on ESCC is beneficial for students and can
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enhance effectiveness of teachers’ reading instruction. Teachers will pay more attention to train students9 abilities to gain and catch information, strengthen students5 reading strategies and reading skills, broaden students5 horizons and teach students how to analyze the writers5 writing purpose. According to the analysis of data, reading instructional designs based on ESCC can improve studenfs reading competence which includes develop students9 reading skills, reading attitudes and reading competence.
Chapter 5 Conclusion
5.1Research Findings
Research findings which show in this part include the main problems of ESCC and reading instructional design in Guiyang No. 17 Middle School and the main causes of them. The analysis and discussions of results have been presented in chapter 4. The disadvantages of the application of English reading instructional design based on ESCC which are pointed out in the following ways.
To start with, it can be easily shown from the questionnaire results that Middle School English teachers have a basic understanding of ESCC, but their understanding of ESCC just stays on the superficial level. To the majority of these teachers, ESCC is simply regarded as a framework that cannot be applied to the practical teaching. The questionnaire results also show that some teachers misunderstand instructional design as teaching plan. Whafs worse, they consider an instructional design as a way to sort out the teaching contents and if s not important that it can be ignored. Obviously, their cognitions of ESCC and instructional design indicate that ifs hard for middle school English teachers to apply ESCC in English reading instructional design. Therefore, if middle school English teachers are based on ESCC to make English reading instructional design, they will respectively have a deeper cognition of ESCC and reading instructional design. And then, they can recognize there is a close correlation between English reading instructional design and ESCC.
Secondly, ifs apparent that there are some good effects on English reading instruction through the application of English instructional design based on ESCC. Based on the comparison of results from the post-test between the EC and the CC, it can be found the average score of English reading in the EC is a little higher than that in the CC. More importantly, the interview results show that English reading instructional design based on ESCC can help teachers design more effective activities and deeply understand the reading materials to achieve the teaching objectives, which can promote students to be involved in English reading classes and improve their reading interests reading skills and reading competence. Whafs more, students become more active when they take part in reading activities and their opinions about reading classes become more positive. The students9 feedback reflects that they can enjoy the process of reading rather than do not merely concentrate on language points and grammar. In this way, they will be aware that scores are not the only thing should be paid attention to, and it is important to cultivate the abilities to learning, thinking and analyzing as well.
5.2Pedagogical Implication
This research indicates that the combination of English reading instructional design and ESCC is effective to enhance students5 reading competence in middle school. There are several implications as follows.
Firstly, ESCC is a new concept which appears in only several years. ESCC provides teachers a new direction of how to teach English well and how to teach students that are needed by their development and society. Therefore, it is of importance for teachers to constantly learn the new knowledge about ESCC to enrich teachers5 beliefs, teaching methods and so on. Besides, English teachers in middle school need learn ESCC actively and have a deeper understanding of it by online, training or other ways.
Secondly, reading is a quite effective way to cultivate students5 ESCC which means that reading needs to be paid more attention to. So in the preparation of reading, teachers need to combine ESCC with reading instructional design to design different reading activities so that students can have more interests on reading and have a better understanding of reading materials. Whafs more, teachers may concentrate more on dealing with the relationship between instructional design and reading class to make reading classes more effective.
Finally, teaching objectives should combine with ESCC in an English reading instructional design. There is no doubt that teaching objectives play a significant role in an English reading instructional design, which is the guidance of teaching procedures. Thus, teaching objectives based on ESCC will influence teaching procedures which are helpful to the cultivation of students9 ESCC.
What the author will do is to keep learning and you are welcomed to give further suggestions for reading instructional design and then to promote the cultivation of ESCC.
5.3Research Limitation
There are still some limitations.
Firstly, the time of the research is limited. In this research, the experiment lasted only four months which is not enough.
Secondly, the number of participants takes part in this research is limited too. The number of participants involved in this research is too small to represent the common views. And the author only interviews three English teachers thus the data collected from the interview and questionnaire may not be sufficient.
Thirdly, ESCC is a new concept that the research on it is not enough both in practical and theoretical level to make the research more sufficient.


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