功能对等理论视角下传记《看见》的英译

来源: 未知 作者:paper 发布时间: 2020-04-29 21:13
论文地区:中国 论文语言:中文 论文类型:英语论文
传记是一种常见的文学样式,主要记录历史大事以及与历史有关的重要人物。一 部优秀的文学传记必须具备真实性和文学创造性,因此一些年代久远的传记对于史学 家以及热爱研读历
摘要
传记是一种常见的文学样式,主要记录历史大事以及与历史有关的重要人物。一 部优秀的文学传记必须具备真实性和文学创造性,因此一些年代久远的传记对于史学 家以及热爱研读历史的人而言,具有十分重要的价值。于是,译者选择了 2013年畅 销书之一的传记文学《看见》进行了部分翻译,从而探讨关于传记文学的翻译策略和 翻译技巧,促进中国传记走向世界。
尤金•奈达提出的功能对等理论,强调在语法、词汇、文化因素等方面运用技巧, 从而使译文贴近原文,最终目的语读者对译文的反应和原语读者对原文的反应大致相 同,这正是传记翻译的关键所在。
此次翻译实践报告分别从词汇层面、句法层面以及风格层面探讨了传记《看见》 的翻译,并对如何准确地再现原文提岀了一些翻译策略。在词汇层面作者运用了诸如 直译、直译和意译相结合的翻译策略;在句子层面作者使用了增译、省译、转换法等 翻译技巧;在风格方面,作者论述了如何准确再现源语内涵的问题。作者希望该翻译 实践报告为那些对中国历史感兴趣并致力于传记翻译的人们提供一些有价值的参考。
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1Project Background
A biography is a genre in the middle ground between pragmatic text and literary text. It is mainly a detailed description of someone's actual life involving just the basic facts like education, work, relationships and death or a record of historical events. It can be seen that “the real history" and "the reasonable literary creation based on the historical facts" (Wang, 2017) are the basic factors of a biography.
China wins the attention from the world by its economic growth and Chinese culture is gradually attracting the eyes of the world's people. Accordingly, there is an increasing demand for Chinese books.
As a best-seller in 2013, Insight is a biography written by Chai Jing, a Chinese journalist, host, author and environmental activist. Based on her work experiences from 2001 to 2011, the biography covers some important events that show different aspects of China in the past ten years. In the book, there are three connotations. First, it is Chai Jing's autobiography that records her work experiences from a newcomer who suffered from failure, frustration and perplexity in the press circle to a prominent hostess in China Central Television. Second, it is a memorandum of the Chinese society in the past ten years. From the international events like SARS, earthquake in Wenchuan City and 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing to the domestic events like environmental problems in Shanxi Province, domestic violence and suicide clusters among the children at Shuangcheng Town. Third, it is a collection of individuals. Every event in the book helps us further understand human nature・ Other people's stories are in a sense our stories.
1.2Purpose and Significance of the Project
Since the book was published in 2012, it sold more than one million copies in the domestic market, but there is no English version for foreigners to appreciate. From the perspective of history, on the one hand, the book serves as a window for people both at
home and abroad to take a closer look at China. On the other hand, the book could provide a reference for other foreign historians who are making a research on Chinese modem history. From the aspect of cultural exchange, there are common cultural factors in cultural diversity. The book could play a proactive role in cultural exchange. Therefore, an English version will be of great value for English-speaking readers.
What9s more, in the essay '"Translation of the Biography^^ (2007), Ye Zinan once wrote that the biographical translation could be regarded as a kind of ideal text for the translator because it has both the characteristics of informative texts and some of the characteristics of literary innovation. In this report, this author selects Chapter Six of the autobiography Insight to explore how to do to accurately reproduce the source text on lexical level, sentential level and stylistic level under the guideline of Eugene A. Nida's Functional Equivalence (1986). This paper also discusses what strategies could be applied in this translation project. It is hoped that this report could provide some references for other translators.
1.3Structure of the Report
This report consists of five chapters. The first chapter mainly introduces the project background, purpose and significance as well as the layout of the report. The second chapter analyzes the source text in terms of linguistic features and stylistic features. Besides, the preparation of report and difficulties in the process of translation are also covered in this part. The third chapter focuses on the theoretical basis. It reviews some related studies on translation equivalence, and Nida's theory on formal equivalence and dynamic equivalence, especially on functional equivalence. The fourth chapter is the main part of the report. A lot of specific examples are selected and analyzed from the perspective of functional equivalence. To achieve equivalence in the translation of the biography, this author puts forward some translation strategies. The fifth chapter concludes the whole report with the major findings and limitations of this project・
Chapter 2 Project Description
2.1Features of the Source Text
There are three main connotations in the book. Firstly, it includes too much information. Chai Jing describes what she saw from different angles. Secondly, the book is readable and understandable because the language is plain without too many abstruse words. Thirdly, it applies a simple, straightforward style of writing. As Chai Jing records some facts, she also expresses her genuine feelings. Therefore, in view of linguistic features, there are a lot of modal particles, culture-loaded words and dialects; figures of speech extend the connotations. In regard to stylistic features, dialogic expressions dominate the major parts, along with simple, straightforward sentences.
2.1.1Linguistic Features
As a kind of biography, Insight has seen a ten-year historical fact that covers significant affairs related to all the Chinese people at home and abroad・ Hence, only these modal particles, culture-loaded words and dialects could reflect the real life in China and the real images of the Chinese people. For example,
(1) "回家想俺妈,你让俺妈回来吧
(2) “妈妈对不起,下次我用筷子、用剪子(拦住)呢。"
The Chinese characters such as “ 俺” “剪子"obviously represent a kind of Chinese dialects. Naturally, once readers read these dialects, they could guess the background. “ 11 巴"“呢 ” belong to modal particles that could reflect the mental activities of the figure, so readers could further understand the thoughts of the figure.
From the readers? point of view, Insight is more of a biography. The book not only tells a real history to the readers, but also displays a strong literary color to attract readers and delivers some complicated connotations and thoughts through figures of speech such as simile, metaphor, personification and petition. For example,
(3)他换了一种声音,像刀片一样。
(4)如果不是这个伤口一样的荷叶扣……
The sentence in Example (3) uses a simile, which compares the man's voice to the coldness of a blade. Thus, the author's fear is implicit in such a simile. Similarly, the sentence in Example (4) depicts the scar-like lotus leaf catch by using a metaphor, further expressing how shocked and agonized the author feels.
2.2.2Stylistic Features
Insight is a combination of historical facts and literature. The author adopts the dialogic form and the objective point to show the past history, so the language is colloquial and succinct to a large degree. And the statements are objective and formal. In addition, the author hides her inner feelings in some abstract and profound sentences. For example,
(5)我问:“他打过您吗?
老人说:”喝醉了谁也不认,一喝酒,一喝酒就拿刀,成宿地闹。”
This dialogue is between Chai Jing and an interviewee. The reason why the interviewee's son beats her shows through such a simple and direct expression.
(6)二0—0年,中国法学会再次公布了《家庭暴力防治法(专家建议稿)》, 建议建立家庭暴力庇护场所、向家庭暴力受害人签发保护令。
The sentence above is formal and objective because it states the draft of a legislative rule.
(7)万物流变,千百万年,谁都是一小粒,嵌在世界的秩序当中,采访是什么? 采访是生命间的往来,认识自己越深,认识他人越深,反之亦然。
The sentence is a conclusion where the author delivers how she rethinks the meaning of her occupation. Although the sentence is abstract and profound, some feeling or thought is hidden in these words and even guides people who are lost and trapped in their lift:.
2.2Preparation
Before doing the translation, the author of the report had read the book Insight several times to have a general understanding of its style and theme. Then, the author analyzed the special words, syntax and discourses as well as figures of speech to fully understand their hidden meanings.
During the translation, the author of the paper was dedicated to the translation of Chapter Six, trying to achieve equivalence between the original text and the target text.
The author spent about one month in finishing the translation of the sixth chapter and then kept correcting and proofreading the English version.
Besides, the author studied a number of translation theory works, such as Toward a Science of Translation (Nida, 1964), "Talking about the Translation of Biography,' (Ye, 2007), From One language to Another (Nida and Jan de Waard, 1986), Contemporary Translation Theories (Gentzler, 1993), Introducing Translation Studies (Mundy, 2001) and so on.
Chapter 3 Theoretical Basis
3.1Related Studies on Translation Equivalence
Translation Equivalence has been an important theory in modem translation studies at home and aboard. At the end of the 18th century, Alexander Fraser Tytler, a distinguished English translator put forth Three Principles of Translation in Essay on the Principles of Translation (1978), which equaled to principles of translation equivalence. Firstly, a translation should give a complete transcript of the ideas of the original work・ Secondly, the style and manner of writing should be of the same character as that of the original. Thirdly, a translation should have all the ease of the original composition. In the 1950s, E. V. Rieu, a translation theorist in England proposed the term “equivalence" in translation, which was called "the principle of equivalent effect' (Rieu, 1953:554—559). In his book The Art of Translation (1957), Theodore Horace Savory, a famous English translation theorist, expounded equivalence at the lexical level. He pointed out that the translator has to decide on the nearest equivalent, taking into consideration the probable thoughts of the author, the probable feelings of the author's readers and of his own readers, and of the period in history in which the author lived. In the 20th century, J. C. Catford, a well-known English translation theorist, defined “textual equivalence" that means a textual equivalence is any TL text or portion of text which is observed on a particular occasion, by methods described below, to be equivalent of a SL text or portion of SL text (1965). With the development of linguistics and the translation studies in the 20th century, "translation equivalence,^ has become the focus of study in linguistic-oriented Western translation theories.
Chapter 4 Case Analysis of the Translation of Insight
4.1. Functional Equivalence at the Lexical Level
"Word is the most basic unit of the discourse and text." (Liu, Hu, & Zhao, 2008). This part discusses two difficulties of word translation: proper nouns and culture-loaded words.
4.1.1Proper Nouns
A proper noun is a noun that in its primary application refers to a unique entity; such as London, Jupiter, Sarah, or Microsoft, as distinguished from a common noun, which usually refers to a class of entities (city, planet, person, corporation), or non-unique instances of a specific class (a city, another planet, these persons, our corporation).
Example 1:
The source text (ST):东方时空、中央电视台、疯狂英语
The target text (TT): Oriental Horizon, China Central Television (CCTV), Crazy English
Analysis:"东方时空is a CCTV new program that was launched on May 1, 1993. It changed the habit of Chinese viewers who did not watch TV programs in the early 1980s. It is praised as a “pioneer in the reform of Chinese television^^. “中央电视台"is the national television that was founded on May 1, 1958. It is a national deputy ministry-level institution directly under the State Television Administration of the Peopled Republic of China and the State Administration of Press, Publication, Radio, Film and Television. It has many functions such as news dissemination, social education, culture and entertainment, and information services."疯狂英语,'is a brand name related to a non-traditional method of learning English in mainland China conceived by Li Yang. Li believes that the traditional way of learning English in China is ineffective・ Li Yang's method places much emphasis on practicing English orally. His method can be described with the slogan "By shouting out loud, you learn" Thus it can be seen that these proper nouns are classified into proper nouns which contain Chinese characteristics. Given the target reader's response, the version is in accordance with official references.
Chapter 5 Conclusion
5.1 Major Findings
This report explores the translation of the sixth part of the biography Insight under the guidance of Functional Equivalence, and deals with the difficulties at the lexical level, sentential level and stylistic level. According to the functional equivalence theory, "close, natural, equivalent" are three essential elements in translating the source text. Since receptors' response is the focus of the functional equivalence, while translating Insight, this author adopts some translation strategies to achieve a close and natural equivalence in the target text and bring to the target readers a response which is approximately the same as that of the source readers. The major findings are shown as follows:
At the lexical level, proper nouns, modal particles, culture-loaded words are discussed respectively. The translator adopts translation strategies like transliteration, omission, adding notes and conversion.
At the sentential level, long and complex sentences and sentences with figures of speech are put in the first place. It is essential that the translator should transfer the deep and abstract messages into easier and understandable meanings. In addition, given that Chinese is paratactic while English is hypotactic, the translator mainly adopts amplification to make the target text clear and logic. As for sentences with figures of speech like simile, personification and petition, Chinese and English have much in common. Therefore, the translator achieves equivalence in figures of speech and preserves the language features.
At the stylistic level, as a biography, Insight is a mix of historicity and literariness. From the aspect of historicity, the source text involves a lot of colloquial and succinct dialogues and formal and objective statements to show its fhcts. Naturally, the translator refers to some official documents, adopts some translation strategies such as omission and literal translation to realize equivalence in form and content. Finally, the target readers? response takes priority over any other element in the process of translation. In terms of literariness, there are some abstract and profound expressions, so it is essential that the translator should put the deep and abstract meanings into easy and understandable meanings.