奈达功能对等理论视角下《经济学人》财经 新闻英汉翻译实践报告

来源: 未知 作者:paper 发布时间: 2020-04-17 12:28
论文地区:中国 论文语言:中文 论文类型:英语论文
当今世界各领域的交流逐步增强。在各层面的交流当中,经济交流是重中之 重。英语作为世界上应用最普遍的语言毫无疑问是完成沟通的桥梁。虽然不乏有 很多渠道如电视和广播来了
摘要
当今世界各领域的交流逐步增强。在各层面的交流当中,经济交流是重中之 重。英语作为世界上应用最普遍的语言毫无疑问是完成沟通的桥梁。虽然不乏有 很多渠道如电视和广播来了解国际市场以及国际经济形势,但英文财经新闻报道 尤为重要,因为以美国为代表的说英语的国家在经济研究中处于领先地位。然而 在中国,读者的英文理解能力参差不齐使得翻译英语财经新闻尤为重要。
本文运用奈达的功能对等理论进行翻译实践。该理论主张准确和读者为中心 两大原则。准确是指译文必须精准传达原文的意思;读者为中心则强调原文读者 和译文读者的阅读体验应该一致。由于《经济学人》中的财经新闻是一种信息型 文本,其翻译目的便是准确传达观点并考虑读者感受。这恰好与功能对等理论的 原则相呼应,因此该理论可以作为翻译《经济学人》的财经新闻理论指导。
为了解决翻译实践中所遇到的问题,本文依据功能对等理论在词汇和语义层 面分别提岀了翻译策略。词汇层面的翻译策略包括:直译、增译、减译和加注; 语义层面的翻译策略包括:逻辑显化、拆译和调整句子结构。在结论部分,笔者 分析了该翻译实践的心得体会以及有待提高的部分。通过分析,笔者认为奈达功 能对等理论对翻译《经济学人》中的财经新闻具有指导意义。
Chapter One Description of The Translation Task
1.1Background of the project
In a world where countries a nd nations are increasingly connected, people are shifting their attention to global affairs among which economy is the top priority. Although people worldwide are able to learn economic changes through various ways such as television and radio broadcasting, they still find it difficult to grasp the latest economic trends or understand economy in a deeper way because English is the most widely used language and English-speaking countries take the lead in economic investigations and researches. Therefore, publications written in English, especially English business news are of great value to both native speakers and non-native speakers. However, the target readers of such publications are highly educated native speakers, so people from other countries like China still have trouble reading the original English business news. Therefore, they need a good translation which is defined by Tytler (1797) as "That in which the merit of the original work is so completely transfused into another language as to be as distinctly apprehended, as strongly felt, by a native of the country to which that language belongs as it is by those who speak the language of the original work” (Tytler 1797: 14).
Business news illustrates the latest phenomenon happening in the economic and financial fields. And ''business language is the language that business entities use to achieve business purposes in business practice^^ (Li 2005: 2). It contains informative contents with complicated meaning. Based on this feature and the definition of a good translation, functional equivalence theory which dominates in the translation circle will be applied in this thesis. Functional equivalence theory is aimed at pursuing the same reaction from target readers as that from the native readers. With the help of the theory, the author has explored several translation strategies to solve the problems the author met during the translation practice.
1.2Introduction to Translation Practice
1.2.1Introduction of The Economist and its Business News
The Economist, founded in 1843, is one of the most popular journals around the world which has an average weekly circulation of more than 1.5 million. It is an international journal whose contents are not restricted to Europe but covers a wider area. Therefore, 80% of its readers are outside Europe (Hou 2018: 113). Readers can also have access to the articles through APP and website. Its contents mainly focus on free trade, globalization and economic liberalism which are welcomed by executives and policymakers. In return, the insights and perspectives from staff journalists serve as inspirations for these influential persons. However, authors9 names will not appear with their articles at the same time. They believe that who writes the article is less important than what is written in the article. Articles in The Economist have an explicit stand and support their ideas with facts. Writers intend to convey as much information as possible within a limited space, which makes its translation harder than other texts. Besides, many economic terms such as economic freedom and tariff frequently occur in the text. Therefore, those who have little learning of economics can barely understand it.
Articles related to China used to be published in the Asian column. Since 2012, The Economist has launched a new column for China which enables it to provide more pages to focus on China's society and economy (Gao & Shi 2018: 1). China is the third country for which The Economist has launched a column. Its editor at that time believed that the magazine has been reporting China's news and an individual column shall be launched for China due to the fact that China has become a major country worldwide.
"Business news is closely connected with economic work, economic activities and economic lifb” (Shi 2006: 15). Business news in The Economist has its own characters and “its words and structure are different from daily language^ (Li Ming 2007: 225). Firstly, it contains many professional terms related to finance and focuses on highly educated native speakers. That's to say, its readers at least have a basic understanding of the economy. Secondly, business news usually have long sentences which are made up by clauses and prepositions. In this case, although with limited words, authors can convey as much information as possible. However, this writing habit is a barrier for translators because Chinese people do not think or speak in that way.
1.2.2Significance of the Translation Practice
"In essence, translation is a communicative process that takes place in a certain social context” (Hatim & Mason 2001: 3). There are mainly three benefits of translating the business news in The Economist. Firstly, the author who has been doing intensive reading of the articles for nearly a year will definitely gain a deeper understanding of English business news and improve her ability to find problems and explore solutions. This will enable the author in some degree to be more professional in translation. Besides, consulting supervisors will help the author to improve communication skills because she not only needs to speak out her confusion and even disagreement in a proper manner but also accurately understand tutor5 s thinking and logic. Secondly, there are a large number of Chinese who have limited English capability and hope to grasp the latest economic trends and get insights from professors and experts. Under this circumstance, the translation of business news in The Economist will serve as a bridge to convey the business insight which can be a guidance for ordinary people when they buy funds and stocks. In addition, The Economist is the reading material for intellectuals and students preparing for the postgraduate exam. Currently, many university students begin to read such material. Therefore, the translation version will be of great help if they have problems understanding the articles. Thirdly, the author's use of functional equivalence theory will serve as a guidance for others who encounter the translation of business-related and economy-related articles. They may get some insights and inspirations by looking at what translation strategies the author used while doing their own translation task.
Chapter Two Description of Translation Process
2.1Pre-translation Preparation
Before doing the translation, the author has selected 14 economic-related and business-related articles with more than 10,000 words from The Economist published in 2018. At the first stage, the author should read all the 14 articles to have a basic understanding of their main idea and the fields they cover. Therefore, the author can find some relevant parallel texts. By reading them, the translator can "obtain professional knowledge, learn the Chinese expression in the field of business news and analyze its style”(Li Changshuan 2009: 93). The parallel texts can be found at an APP called "商业周刊”,a Chinese version of Bloomberg Business Week. It contains both the original Chinese business news and the translated ones by professional translators. And the author plans to read two articles each day. In this case, seven days are needed to finish phase one. During the reading process, the author will underline the difficult parts and economic terms which will be the focus of phase two.
In the second phase, the author will begin her rough translation and figure out the difficult parts and contents during which tools like dictionaries, Wikipedia and Google will be employed. In addition, the author will make the best use of the resources of JUFE which boasts of economic and financial professors and experts. Meanwhile, school libraries which collect millions of economic and financial books will be of great help. And it is in this phase that the translation strategies and methods will become clear in the author's mind.
2.2While-translation Process
Reading all the 14 articles should be the top priority in the translation process. By doing this, the author can figure out the style and theme of the business news in The Economist. Based on the principle of accuracy and the principle of reader-orientedness, the author will try to translate in the same style as that of the original articles so that target readers have the same feeling as that of the original readers. For articles which have long sentences and many financial terms, the author will concentrate on them in the next phase. Besides, the author will read as many parallel texts as possible to get a
basic understanding of what the style of business-related English-to-Chinese translation is and to know what kind of wording is needed.
2.3Proofreading
Proofreading contains two parts. Firstly, the author herself will check spelling and grammar and examine whether the translation version conforms to Chinese expression habits. In the meanwhile, great focus will be shifted to the parts which the author are not sure about within her knowledge. As for the translated sentences which contain economic terms and which the author find strange, she can consult professors or experts. Secondly, the revised draft will be submitted to the advisor who can point out problems and shortcomings and offer suggestions. After all these efforts, the final translation is the combined wisdom of the author and supervisor. Though imperfect, it is the best version of translation within the author's capability.
Chapter Three Theoretical Framework—Functional
Equivalence Theory
3.1Introduction to Nida and His Definition of Translation
Born in 1914, Eugene Nida is a well-known linguist expert and specializes in translation theories. When he was a child, he believed in Christianity. After obtaining his bachelor degree in the University of California, he learned Bible translation theory. Then he studied New Testament Greek during his postgraduate years and finished his doctoral degree in 1943. His life and studying experience have always been connected with religion and he worked as a charter member, interim pastor and Baptist minister. Due to his background in translation and linguistics, he taught linguistics in college and proposed many translation theories. Nida's theory of translation ''developed from his own practical work from the 1940s onwards when he was translating and organizing the translation of the Bible" (Jeremy 2010: 37). Among all these theories, equivalence theory is highly recognized. This theory has been explained in detail in Principles of Correspondence. In this essay, he argued that there are no identical languages in the world even if corresponding symbols of meanings do exist. Therefore, fully exact translations are impossible. He defines translation in this way:
"in terms of the degree to which the receptors of the message in the receptor language respond to it in substantially the same manner as the receptors in the source language” (Nida & Taber 1969: 24).
Chapter Four Case Studies
In the first three chapters, the author has discussed the features of business news in The Economist which includes long and complicated sentences as well as professional economic and financial terms. They are also the difficult parts. To solve these problems, the author uses the following methods.
4.1At the Lexical Level
In order to translate well, it is extremely important to figure out what the translation unit is. It refers to the unit that can be found in the translated language and corresponds to the original language unit. This process is like moving house. Big objects will be moved as a whole while small objects will be put into a box before being moved. Similarly, a sentence sometimes can be translated as a whole while sometimes it needs to be divided into several parts. Several sentences sometimes can be taken as a whole while in other times their sequence can be changed. With a larger translation unit, the translator has a much larger room to maneuver in the target language, which in turn can be more faithful to the style of the original text; a smaller translation unit can enable the translation to be structurally similar to the original text, while what the translator does is like dancing with shackles. In other words, the translator cannot avoid being tied to the original text.
Just as mentioned above, the translation unit can be as small and short as a word. Words in The Economist are unique because they contain the economic and financial meaning. For instance, in terms of a rigorous legal document, the original author sometimes uses a word to express a particular concept different from other concepts. At this point the word needs to be treated as a translation unit.
Chapter Five Conclusion
With business news in The Economist as the source text, the author analyzes its features which includes long and complicated sentences as well as professional terms in economy and finance. She also describes the translation plan and translation process during which the problems and difficulties she encountered are elaborated. In order to find solutions, the author chooses functional equivalence theory as the guidance. Based on this theory, the author strictly sticks to the principle of accuracy and reader- orientedness. The author adopts several translation methods including making the logic explicit and adjusting sentence order. All the strategies mentioned above effectively helps the author to translate the business news in The Economist in an accurate manner, which in turn proves that Nida's functional equivalence can provide theoretical guidance for the translation of the business news in The Economist.
5.1Major Findings
While translating, the author has some findings. Firstly, the translation of business news in The Economist can help people who are interested in finance and economy to better understand global trend. It is of great importance for those who know much about finance and economics but do not have a good command of English. Secondly, functional equivalence theory is an ideal guidance for translating business news because it's a kind of informative text. This kind of text requires accuracy which is the principle of functional equivalence theory. Thirdly, this report could serve as an inspiration and guidance for students majoring in translation and translators.
5.2Limitations
There are still weaknesses and shortcomings that the author needs to overcome. Firstly, due to the lack of knowledge in finance and economics and the unfamiliarity with the international market, the author has trouble figuring the logic between sentences. Although the author can accurately translate proper names, she finds it difficult to understand the whole sentence when economic terms frequently occur in a long sentence or a paragraph. Therefore, it costs the author much time to turn to professors for help. Secondly, articles are directly selected from The Economist and no standard translation is available. Therefore, suggestions are welcomed to improve this thesis. Thirdly, in order to be a qualified translator or interpreter in the future, the author not only needs enormous translation practice but also shall get to know almost each field since a translator is a kind of compound talent. In addition, the author sincerely hopes that this thesis can serve as an inspiration for those who are engaged in the translation of business-related texts.