全面战略伙伴关系的新阶段

来源: 未知 作者:paper 发布时间: 2020-04-26 18:01
论文地区:中国 论文语言:中文 论文类型:MPA论文
本论文由中国研究学院硕士研究生Kuangaliyeva Anar于2018-2019年期间撰 写,其研究意图,主要分为三个目标: 1) 证明两国之间的经济关系紧密相连,包括基础设施和贸易。表明这两个 国
摘要
本论文由中国研究学院硕士研究生Kuangaliyeva Anar于2018-2019年期间撰 写,其研究意图,主要分为三个目标:
1) 证明两国之间的经济关系紧密相连,包括基础设施和贸易。表明这两个 国家不仅是邻国,而且是具有广阔前景的经济伙伴。
2) 提高人们对中哈经济关系的认识及其在国际上的重要性。中华人民共和 国和哈萨克斯坦共和国的大多数学者尚未广泛意识到这一事实。
3) 指出这两个国家在经济领域已经开展的工作,并对经济关系的未来发展 给出建议。
这项工作通过不同的方法和研究阐述了所提出的不同意见,思想和理论:
1) 阅读和研究解决中哈经济关系问题的各种书籍和著作。
2) 阅读和研究在线国际报纸(主要是俄文和中文文件,其中大多数以英文 和哈萨克语书写)。
3) 网上学校和学术文章的阅读和学习(主要来自哈萨克斯坦国立大学 (KazNU)和欧亚国立大学(ENU))。
这项工作的目的是找到并证明中哈经济关系的未来。此外,对于任何想进 一步了解中哈经济关系的演变和挑战的人来说,这都是有益的阅读。通过回顾中 哈关系的经济史,读者将能够更好地理解具有许多独特特征的邻居关系。 这项工 作仅侧重于国际关系的经济方面,该关系在其整体中具有许多其他特征。工作的 结构由本研究的目的和目标决定。这项工作的结构取决于研究的目的和问题。论 文包括引言,四个章节,结论和参考。引言证实了研究的重要性,目的和问题, 以及研究的方法论基本原理。第一章介绍了两国经济关系的形成和现状。第二章 介绍了中哈在贸易,油气领域的合作历史。第三章探讨了影响两国合作的许多问 题和因素。最后,结论是关于中国和哈萨克斯坦在贸易和石油天然气行业中建立 伙伴关系的前景和未来。最后,总结了论文的工作成果。
Chapter 1: Bilateral economic relations between China and
Kazakhstan.
1.1The formation of economic relations.
After the independence of Kazakhstan, both countries were interested in building stable and good-neighborly relations at a new level. As a result, on January 3, 1992, diplomatic relations were established between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the People's Republic of China. The official visit of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N. Nazarbayev to China in October 1993 marked the beginning of regular meetings between the two countries at the highest level.The trade and economic sphere occupies an important place in the progressive development of the whole range of Kazakhstan-China relations, in which significant progress in recent years has been largely associated with factors such as the complementarity of economies, geographical proximity, dynamic economic development and the promotion of large-scale reforms in both countries . Kazakh-Chinese trade and economic relations are developing on the basis of important and numerous interstate and intergovernmental treaties and agreements that define the basic principles and directions of mutually beneficial cooperation between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Peopled Republic of China. Kazakhstan is for China an important and largest market in the CIS after Russia. The level of development of trade and economic ties between Kazakhstan and China is becoming more dynamic. In recent years, the structure of trade between the two countries has expanded. Thanks to the joint efforts of the governments and enterprises of the two countries, the state of trade and economic relations is satisfactory. Important factors for improvement in bilateral economic relations are the improvement of the general economic situation in Kazakhstan. Especially in the financial sector, in a number of industrial sectors, namely in the oil and gas. As well as the privatization of a number of large industrial facilities by non-state foreign and local companies, and the rapid economic development of the PRC, China5 s entry into the WTO, an increase in the range of goods manufactured by China and further export.
An significant means of ensuring the national development strategy was China's foreign policy. She is often qualified as conservative. Indeed, many fundamental foreign policy principles have remained unchanged for 50 years. They relate, first of all, to understanding the sovereignty of the country and the foundations of interaction between states, but it is also necessary to see significant changes that clearly distinguish the international course of China after the start of reforms in the late 1970s and early 80s. from the line drawn during the years of the "cultural revolution" (1966-1975). The PRC's current foreign policy continues to be updated, although it is largely based on the development of conceptual approaches of the 1980s. It is noteworthy that even before the collapse of the USSR, the Chinese leadership developed a rather productive paradigm of relations between the PRC and the outside world, which fully justified itself in the dramatic circumstances of the early 1990s.
The process of modernization of China's foreign policy was gradual, which is also characteristic of Chinese reforms. In many ways, its course was the completion of a structure consisting of time-tested elements and structures. An essential feature of Chinese foreign policy remains the constant search for non-violent, economical enough and, at the same time, effective solutions that do not exclude rigidity. Accordingly, a considerable part of the analytical work in the preparation of certain decisions is devoted to the consideration of the contradictions existing in the world, the possibility of their use in the interests of the country. China extremely rarely comes forward with any major international initiatives. Usually this country is in no hurry to assess world events, often taking a wait-and-see and neutral position. The evolution of Chinese foreign policy over the past twenty years can be somewhat schematically represented as several ongoing transformations, changing relationships, bearing in mind the significant difference in the “statics" of foreign policy that ensures national independence and its “dynamics” that focus on supporting the process of social economic development.
Economic and trade relations between China and Kazakhstan are developing on the basis of an advanced legal framework that includes more than 30 documents. This is of great importance for progress in this area of activity of the Kazakh-Chinese intergovernmental commission on trade and economic cooperation. In addition, each visit of Kazakhstan and Chinese politicians to Astana and Beijing usually leads to new trade
2S.Peyrouse. "Chinese Economic Presenee in KazakhstaChina Perpectives [Online]. 2008/3 | 2008.
3Syroezhkin K. L. The Big Game in Central Asia // Economic Strategies. Central Asia. 2007. No. 5. arrangements. Kazakhstan remains the second (after Russia) largest trading partner of China among the CIS countries and Eastern Europe. Bilateral trade maintains a positive trend over the years. In 2002, bilateral trade amounted to $ 1.955 billion. For the six months of 2012 - $ 8.73 billion. Kazakhstan's exports - 6.144 billion US dollars, imports from China - 2.586 billion US dollars. The main export positions of Kazakhstan to China are exacerbated by the commodity group: crude oil, copper and copper alloys, ferroalloys and non-ferrous metals, scrap metal, fertilizers, hides, cotton and wool. China exports computers and equipment, railway and tramcars, heavy equipment, chemicals, consumer goods and food products to Kazakhstan.[ J.A. Saipov, R.Z. Fakhrutdinov. 2017. "The current state and ways to improve Kazakhstan's refining." University of Tech no logy Heralds.Smagulova. 2017. "The present stage of positioning of The Republic of Kazakhstan in energy architecture of The Caspian region〃,BecTHMK yHMBepcMTeTa Nq2.]
1.2Current situation and evolution of economic relations.
At present, as in the early 1990s, a peculiar "Chinese boom^^ is observed in Kazakhstan. The level of trade between countries since 1991 has grown by more than 11 times. Kazakhstan is the leading trading partner of China among all countries of Central Asia: the volume of trade between the two countries reached $ 8.7 billion. The share of China in the foreign trade turnover of Kazakhstan is about 16%. If we take into account the volumes of shuttle trade, the share of China can be 22%, this is only official statistics, and unofficial data give a figure of 30% or more. China clearly demonstrates its interest in the region, actively introducing itself into the economy. The intensification of trade, economic and investment cooperation is observed not only in the bilateral format, but also within the framework of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. In any case, China is the initiator of the idea of creating a free trade zone in the space uniting the SCO states. He also allocated a 900-million trade credit to the SCO member states in 2005 and a 10- billion loan for infrastructure facilities in 2008.
As for trade contacts, it is here that China dominates relations. In addition, this is quite natural. The main articles of Kazakhstan's exports to China are commodities: rolled ferrous and non-ferrous metals, scrap metal, oil, as well as raw leather, raw cotton, wool. Kazakhstan imports from China finished products, primarily consumer goods, machinery, electrical equipment, transport engineering products, etc. Moreover, Chinese imports to Kazakhstan are characterized in most cases by low-quality goods, which compete with domestic producers due to their low price and quantity. Many Chinese experts consider the current structure of the Kazakh-Chinese trade balance to be optimal and attribute it to one of the important advantages of bilateral trade and economic cooperation. In their opinion, such a complementarity of economic structures, which is based on the ability of Kazakhstan to produce primary raw materials, and China - to process it, will be preserved in the near future.
Today, the PRC, or rather even the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR), has transformed the PRC into an export-import base for trade with Central Asia. Almost any Chinese-made product can be purchased or ordered in the XU AR. In addition, with the rapid growth of the Chinese economy, the demand for raw materials in Kazakhstan will grow, although trade with it does not play a significant role for China. If we talk about the specifics of China's trade contacts with Kazakhstan, it is in many respects similar to the specifics of their foreign economic relations with China in general.
Firstly, it is the growth in mutual trade volumes associated with the provision of trade loans by China. These loans are connected in nature and are intended either for the acquisition of Chinese goods, or for the implementation of projects involving Chinese companies.
Secondly, the trade balance between China and Kazakhstan is characterized by a stable surplus in favor of China. In addition, this is especially noticeable after 2005, when China began to practice the issuance of coherent trade loans to Central Asian states.
Third, admittedly by experts from Central Asian states, the republics of Central Asia and Kazakhstan, in particular, are gradually securing the role of suppliers of raw materials and natural resources in China, and China - the supplier of finished products to the region. In other words, the states of the region are turning into the raw material base of the growing economy of the PRC and the consumer, manufactured by him industrial, and in recent years, agricultural goods.[ Kazakhstan-China. 1992-1997 - Almaty-Beijing, Xinhua Publishing House, 2010. - 136 p.]
Fourth, this is the activity of Chinese companies in Kazakhstan and Kazakhstan within the PRC. We note such an unpleasant fact - in Kazakhstan there are almost all major Chinese companies, but we cannot talk about the presence of Kazakhstani companies in China. There are only a few of them - and not because the Chinese are not letting them in. There are no special restrictions. Simply, on the one hand, doing business in China for foreigners is quite problematic, and on the other hand, the profit obtained does not compare with what you can get by working in the states of the region. Apparently, it is necessary to recognize that the economic cooperation between the PRC and Kazakhstan is completely subordinated to the general tasks of the development of the Chinese economy. The development of Central Asia is at a pace that is consistent with Chinese capabilities, while China seeks to minimize the cost of maintaining its leisurely economic advancement in the region. Massive merchandise exports solve several problems of the Chinese economy at once.[S.Peyrouse. "Chinese Economic Presenee in Kazakhstan". China Perpectives [Online]. 2008/3 | 2008.]
Over the past years, China has remained one of the largest foreign trade partners of Kazakhstan. According to the Main Customs Administration of the PRC, trade between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the PRC in 2017 amounted to $ 18.0 billion, an increase of 37.4% compared with 2016, including export of the People's Republic of China - 6.35 billion (+ 32,3%), Kazakhstan's imports - $ 11.64 billion (+40.4).
According to the State Revenue Committee of the Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the trade turnover of the Republic of China-PRC in January- December 2017 amounted to 10.4 billion US dollars, an increase of 32.6% compared to the same period in 2016, including export of the Republic of Kazakhstan - 5 , $ 7 billion (+36.6%) and imports - $ 4.7 billion (+27.9%).
According to the National Bank of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the cumulative investment volume of the PRC in the Republic of Kazakhstan as of March 31, 2017 amounted to $ 15.2 billion. The main areas of investment of the PRC in Kazakhstan remain transport and warehousing, financial and insurance activities, oil and gas, construction and mining industries.[ Gamarnik G.N. Management of the economy of Kazakhstan: methodology, approaches, ways of implementation. Almaty 2002 272 s.]
As of March 31, 2017, the total investment of Kazakhstan in China amounted to $ 3.58 billion. In April 2013, the Samruk-Kazyna National Welfare Fund and the China International Trade Facilitation Committee established the Kazakhstan-China Business Council (KKDS). As of October 2017, 4 meetings of the Business Council were held.
In 2015, the Framework Agreement on Cooperation in the Field of Industrialization and Investments was signed between the Ministry of Investment and Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the State Committee for Development and Reform of the PRC (SCR).
Currently, 51 projects are being implemented for a total amount of $ 28 billion in the areas of automotive, agriculture, chemical, mining, oil and gas, construction, metallurgy, light industry, production of mineral fertilizers, energy, transport and logistics, new technologies.
On June 8, 2018, the regular meeting of the Kazakhstan-China Business Council was held in Beijing as part of the visit of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N. Nazarbayev to the People's Republic of China
The event, organized by the China International Trade Facilitation Committee in cooperation with Samruk-Kazyna JSC, was attended by top managers of Kazakhstani national and private companies and more than 300 representatives of the Chinese business community, including heads of major state corporations in China.
Interstate relations between Kazakhstan and China can be fully called exemplary. Currently, they have entered a new stage in a comprehensive strategic partnership. Their main driving force is close personal contacts established between the heads of the two states. This helps to support the practice of regular annual summits to discuss various issues of bilateral cooperation and pressing international and regional problems.[ Nurgaliev KR, Nurgaliyev AK, Kazakhstan Economy: Textbook. Almaty: Ziyat Press, 2007. - 306 p.]
Chapter 2: Opportunities of partnership between China and
Kazakhstan.
2.1China-Kazakhstan trade & investment.
In recent years, there has been a trend of continuous growth in the volume of trade between Kazakhstan and the PRC. This serves as the basis for mutual relations and gives impetus to the development of cooperation between the two countries in all areas. Since Kazakhstan attaches great importance to the development of bilateral relations with China, a number of measures have been taken by the government of Kazakhstan. According to official figures, Kazakhstan exports in bilateral trade exceed imports.
The structure of trade between Kazakhstan and China consists mainly of Kazakhstani sale of oil, ore, coal, ferrous metals, electrolyte copper, nickel, aluminum, and livestock products. As for China5s supplies to Kazakhstan, these are mainly goods from the light and textile industries, electric machinery and equipment, etc. Direct and cross-border trade accounts for most of the turnover, of which one third is barter.
China is one of the main trading partners of Kazakhstan. If we compare the bilateral trade turnover between the two countries in recent years, then the dynamic development is obvious. Therefore, in 1998, exports to the PRC from the Republic of Kazakhstan amounted to only 484.3 million US dollars, when imports of Chinese goods to Kazakhstan were equal to 7&5 million US dollars.[ Melnikov V.D. Finance - Almaty: Economy, 2012. - 808 p.]
In 2017, the trade turnover between Kazakhstan and China amounted to 10.5 billion US dollars - this is 32.6% (2.6 billion US dollars) more than a year earlier. In 2017, the total trade turnover of Kazakhstan amounted to 77.7 billion US dollars (a year earlier - 62.1 billion US dollars). The proportion of China is 13.5%. Such data are provided by finprom.kz.
It is noteworthy that exported to China by 1.1 billion US dollars more than imported. Therefore, in 2017, exports amounted to 5.8 billion US dollars, and imports - 4.7 billion dollars. In 2016, these indicators were 4.2 and 3.7 billion dollars, respectively.

Figure 1 * Trade turnover Kazakhstan-China (billion us dollars)
As part of the national investment strategy of Kazakhstan, by 2022, the gross inflow of foreign direct investment will increase to 26%, and investments focused on improving efficiency, that is, export-oriented, will increase to 50% compared to 2016.
Chapter 3: Challenges of partnership between China and Kazakhstan・
3.1Factors influencing on cooperation between China and Kazakhstan・
Political, cultural and economic aspects of cooperation
China-Kazakhstan political mutual trust has grown stronger day by day. Both countries respect the independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and chosen path of each other's development, firmly render mutual support in key issues, and carry out close coordination and cooperation in international and regional affairs. In 2017, in January- April, trade turnover increased by 45.6%. Kazakhstan is increasing the volume of exports to China.
Through the China-Kazakhstan oil pipeline, 100 million tons of oil has been delivered to China, and through the China-Kazakhstan gas pipeline, the delivery is 183 billion cubic meters. Cooperation is deepening in new sources of energy, such as nuclear energy, wind power and photoelectricity. Between the two countries, there are more than 50 regular flights a week. In 2016, more than 1,200 freight trains from China to Europe with transit through Kazakhstan traveled, the volume of rail traffic reached 8.2 million tons, container cargo increased more than 3 times.
The analysis of political, cultural and economic cooperation allows identifying the main factors influencing the cooperation of China and Kazakhstan in the oil and gas sector.
It is necessary to promote cooperation on joint construction of the nOne Belt and One Road", accelerate the joining of development strategies, and jointly implement the results of the Forum for International Cooperation nOne Belt and One Road". It is necessary to promote integrated infrastructure interconnection and facilitation trade; to find more flexible and effective models of investment and financing, to expand mutual settlement in national currencies in support of joint projects of China and Kazakhstan. It is necessary to develop industrial cooperation as a new source of growth of bilateral interaction, to intensify the implementation of already agreed projects with the expected quick results, to continue identifying the significance of a mechanism for dialogue on cooperation in industrialization and investment, to maintain effective information
25Statistical Yearbook of Kazakhstan for 2001. Almaty, 1993. - 410 p. exchange and policy coordination, to create a favorable business climate for companies of two nations.
It essential to intensify cooperation in international affairs, intensify coordination within the UN, the SCO, CICA and other multilateral formats, and timely exchange views on topical international and regional issues. China supports increasing the weight of Kazakhstan in international affairs as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council for 2017-201 &

Figure 9・ *The impact of various factors on China-Kazakhstan cooperation
Currently, Kazakhstan, focusing on the Third Modernization, is intensively promoting the new economic policy "Nurly Joi”, the "Strategy Kazakhstan-205O55, and the modernization of public consciousness. The people of Kazakhstan are walking along the path to the great goal of realizing the Kazakhstan dream of reviving the nation and prosperity of the country. The Chinese people also make unremitting efforts to fulfill the goals of the "two centuries" and realize the Chinese dream of a great revival of the Chinese nation. The peoples of China and Kazakhstan, closely linked by common
% aspirations and thoughts, jointly build their dreams and strive for their realization.
Training students and staff development in China
The growing popularity of education in China is reflective of a global trend. China ranks third in the world after the US and the UK by the number of foreign students studying in the country. For Kazakhstan today, China ranks second after Russia in the list of countries most popular for educational migration. In addition, every year, learning in China is becoming more popular. If in 2007 in China there were about 3,000 Kazakhstan students, then as of February 2016, their number increased almost 4 times, reaching 11,764 people.
The growing popularity of learning in China is a worldwide trend. China ranks third in the world behind the United States and Great Britain in terms of the number of foreign students studying in the country. Today, China occupies the second place for Kazakhstan behind Russia among countries most popular for educational migration. Moreover, every year, learning in China is becoming more popular. While in 2007 about 3,000 Kazakh students were studying in China, as of February 2016 their number had grown almost 4-fold, amounting to 11,764 people.
If we expand the time frame, then, according to the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, the number of Kazakh students in Chinese universities during the past decade has increased 14 times.
The L.N.Gumilyov Eurasian National University (ENU) conducted a survey of students from Kazakhstan studying in China. The authors asked the students why they chose China as the country of higher education. The answers turned out quite the [ Shevchenko V. State policy of property transformation in Kazakhstan. / / Economics statistics. No. 1,] [2002. - P.89-90.] following. The first place in the list of the most important factors is "caring for foreign students? In other words, 49.6% of the respondents justified their choice of the country of instruction by the fact that "China take care of foreign students (visa support, good hostel, extra-curricular support in emergency situations, etc.)." In second place with 45% was "low tuition and tuition fees". Further, the last place was occupied by the quality of education (41.8%), its prestige (39.1%), the won grant (29.5%), the cultural factor (26.5%) and the recommendation of friends and acquaintances (25.6%).
Recently, the Chinese Petroleum University has become increasingly popular among Kazakhstani youth. The institute specializes in the oil industry. The main subjects are oil exploration and production, as well as petrochemistry. Now, the university has trained 100 thousand graduates, including foreign students. Kazakhstanis make up a significant part of foreign students - more than half. This is explained by the fact that very fruitful cooperation in the oil and gas industry has developed between China and Kazakhstan. The China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), which produces oil in Kazakhstan, has committed itself to pay for the training of oil specialists in refresher courses and as part of university training. The company CNPC directly in Kazakhstan selects the students, whose tuition later pays. [27Esentugelov A.Ye. Institutional and structural transformations of the economy of Kazakhstan. A., 1994.-
201 p.
28Committee on Statistics of the MNE RK // http://economy.gov.kz/ru/kategorii/komitet-po-statistike]
Chapter 4: Assessment of trade-economic relations
Kazakhstan's main economic partners
4.1 Russian-Kazakh trade and economic relations・
Economic relations between Russia and Kazakhstan are intense and dynamic, characterized by a high level of global interaction.
Kazakhstan is one of the leading partners in foreign trade of Russia. Cooperation with Kazakhstan in the energy sector is particularly active and large-scale. The main volume of transit of Kazakh oil to foreign markets is carried out through the territory of Russia.
Transit is carried out on the basis of a long-term intergovernmental agreement of June 7, 2002: on the Atyrau-Samara oil pipeline at least 15.5 million tons per year; the system Makhachkala-Tikhoretsk-Novorossiysk - up to 5.5 million tons per year.
Oil transit through the Russian territory is also carried out within the framework of the Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CTC). At 50% it belongs to the governments of Russia and Kazakhstan and 50% to the mining companies that financed the implementation of the first stage of the project.
Cooperation in the field of gas is carried out in the framework of the long-term intergovernmental agreement of November 2& 2001.
Since 2002, CJSC KazRosGaz (a joint venture of Gazprom and Kazmunaigaz) has been supplying raw gas from the Karachaganak field for processing at the Orenburg Gas Plant.
Removing financial barriers and expanding investment cooperation is facilitated by the Eurasian Development Bank, an agreement about which was signed by Russia and Kazakhstan in January 2006 in Astana. The registered capital of the bank is 1.5 billion dollars. USA.
Federal executive authorities and interested organizations are implementing a program of long-term economic cooperation between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan (until 2020), signed on November 25, 2011 in Astana. Work is underway on a project for the formation of a Russian-Kazakh nanotechnology fund, to create a joint venture for the automotive industry in Kazakhstan, to organize a joint venture for assembling Ka-226T helicopters and to build a full-cycle plant for the auto industry, and the formation of a common market for the electric power industry in Russia and Kazakhstan continues. In addition, the possibility of creating joint ventures, attracting investment (technology), and then entering the markets of third countries in the metallurgical, mining, chemical, light, medical, pharmaceutical, woodworking, machine- building industries is being considered.
Since 1997, the Russian-Kazakh intergovernmental commission on cooperation has been operating in Astana. In the framework of the inter-agency standing committee, there is a subcommission on transport, interregional and border cooperation, investment and banking cooperation, cooperation in science and new technologies, advanced technologies and industry.
Thus, for obvious and objective reasons, the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan are states whose economies are closely related.
Russia for Kazakhstan, in the first place, is a territorial transit space, as well as the main consumer of goods and services, one of the leading and major economic partners in the post-Soviet space. In turn, Kazakhstan, which has the largest economy in Central Asia, has huge reserves of oil, minerals and metals. Kazakhstan also has enormous potential in the development of agriculture, which has vast steppe lands, as well as a developed space infrastructure that enables launching spacecraft to the International Space Station.
Despite close cooperation, trade and economic relations between Russia and Kazakhstan have recently been negative.
According to the Federal Customs Service of Russia, the turnover of Russia with Kazakhstan from 2013 decreased to 2017, the negative dynamics of turnover with Kazakhstan in 2016 was 16.3% (Figure 10).

Figure 10 - Dynamics of commodity turnover between Russia and Kazakhstan for 2012- 2016, million US dollars.
The decline in indicators is due to the continued negative impact of a number of key factors, such as the current unfavorable price situation on world commodity markets, the reduction in domestic demand in Kazakhstan and Russia, as well as the mutual influence of sanctions between the Russian Federation and Western countries.
Russia's exports to Kazakhstan exceed imports by more than 2 times. In addition, by the end of 2016, the difference between them slightly increased, due to a more significant devaluation of the Russian ruble compared to the Kazakhstan tenge. As a result, the demand for cheaper goods from Russia to Kazakhstan has increased, and Kazakhstani products, which have risen in price in Russia, have decreased.
After a four-year period of deceleration in nominal indicators of mutual trade between Russia and Kazakhstan, after 7 months of 2017, a significant increase was recorded, which, of course, is a positive factor in foreign economic cooperation of both countries.[ Relations between Kazakhstan and China go to a new level - https://kapital.kz/ec ono mi c/69671/ot no sheniya-kazahsta na-i-kitaya-vyhodyat ・n a-no vyj-uroven.html]
The development of trade relations between Russia and Kazakhstan is facilitated by interregional and border cooperation, carried out on the basis of a fairly broad legal framework - over 300 treaties and agreements between countries have been signed. The economic cooperation program for 2012-2020, the joint action plan for 2016-2018, the program of long-term economic cooperation between the Governments of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation until 2020.
The goods delivered by Russia and Kazakhstan are different. The structure of Russian exports is dominated by the production of machinery, while Kazakhstan's exports dominate the raw materials sector (mineral products, ores and metals).
According to the Federal Customs Service of Russia for the second quarter of 2017, the largest part of Russian supplies were steel machines, equipment and vehicles, mineral

Conclusion: Prospects for cooperation between two nations.
5.1 Relations between China & Kazakhstan within the framework of the
“One belt, one road” initiative.
Modern China is the second economy in the world, which, thanks to a policy of openness and reform, successfully implemented over forty years, has made tremendous progress in development. This country initiated the launch of its own global mega-project "One Belt, One road,,? backed up by financial resources in the form of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and the Silk Road Fund.
We can separately note the initiative "One belt, one road,,? for the implementation of which steps have already been taken, such as the operation of a logistics terminal in the port of Lianyungang (about 250 thousand containers are already passing through it, and it is planned to double these volumes in the near future), construction of the highway “ Western China - Western Europe n, the functioning of the international centern Khorgos "and others. Between the countries of the European Union and the Asia-Pacific region, about six million containers run annually. Now the main part of this flow - about 98% - is transported by the navy through foreign ports. At the same time, the transit land route through Kazakhstan is much shorter than the sea route. Now the transportation of goods is possible within two weeks. This strategic advantage is a key condition for the formation of a transnational transit transport alliance between Astana and Beijing.
It should also be noted that the economic program C4Nurly Zhol" proclaimed by the Leader of the nation echoes the initiative "One belt, one road,\ As Nursultan Nazarbayev noted during his state visit to Beijing, "since December 2014, we have been working to expand the horizons of cooperation in the field of industrialization and investment. In particular, 48 investment projects totaling more than $ 30 billion were selected and a Memorandum between Kazakhstan and China on cooperation in the field of industrialization and investment was signed.^^ Particular attention should be paid to the fact that at present Kazakhstan and China act as a united front on many issues of international politics.
57Esentugelov A.Ye. Institutional and structural transformations of the economy of Kazakhstan. A., 1994.- 201 p.
The ccOne belt, one road^^ project reveals great prospects for realizing the transit potential of Kazakhstan. President of Kazakhstan N.A. Nazarbayev noted that thanks to the transport corridor "Western Europe - Western China^^ transit routes have already appeared, two railway and six road crossings are operating, and as a result, "Kazakhstan, as I wanted, becomes a transit state through trade with China". In 2016, cargo with a total volume of 8.29 million tons was transported through the railway border crossings of the Republic of Kazakhstan and China (Alashankou-Dostyk and Khorgos-Altynkol), which is 16% more than in 2015. In 2017, this figure is projected at 11.5 million tons. Moreover, in the coming years it is planned to reach the mark of 25 million tons.
Energy cooperation is a priority, even a brilliant success of business cooperation between China and Kazakhstan. For 20 years, the parties have been jointly advancing; serious achievements have been made in energy cooperation between Kazakhstan and China.
In the framework of the "One Belt, One Road" initiative, the construction and operation of oil and gas lines meet new historical opportunities and the peoples of the two countries will get real benefits from cooperation. Along with the fact that tens of millions of Chinese enjoy such benefits, energy cooperation between China and Kazakhstan provides feasible support for socio-economic development and improvement of people's life in Kazakhstan. According to statistics, projects, which CNPC has shares, have already paid taxes to the government of Kazakhstan in tens of billions US dollars, created more than 30,000 prestigious jobs, and educated many highly qualified personnel.
"One Belt, One Road" is the path of mutual benefit and win-win cooperation. "Kazakhstan in recent years has achieved great success in development; it is inextricably linked with the feasible support of the Chinese side." The words of ex-President N. Nazarbayev were perceived as a great endorsement of the principle of "mutual benefits and win-win cooperation", which China and Kazakhstan adhere in oil and gas cooperation between China and Kazakhstan has been going on for 20 years. CNPC has demonstrated common technological advantages and constantly contributes to technical progress. Since Kazakhstan gained independence with the help of independent research, the largest onshore oil field was discovered; among the oil produced in Kazakhstan in 2016, the share of joint-stock enterprises accounted for 24%, ranking third among Kazakhstan's oil companies for the extraction of crude oil. In response to the C40ne Belt, One Road^^ initiative, a project to create a large-diameter pipe in Asia was launched within the framework of the China-Kazakhstan cooperation project in the field of production capacities, and the modernization of the Shymkent refinery is ongoing.
As a landmark energy channel nOne Belt, One Road", the China-Central Asia gas pipeline (lines A, B and C) runs through the three countries of Central Asia, with 1,300 km of the gas pipeline laid through Kazakhstan. The southern gas pipeline between China and Kazakhstan has become the second channel for the delivery of natural gas between Central Asia and China.[ Statistical Yearbook of Kazakhstan for 2001. Almaty, 1993. - 410 p.]
The development of industry of the oil and gas investment has stimulated the rapid growth of engineering and technological services for CNPC in Kazakhstan. Currently, 14 oil service departments of a Chinese corporation provide services in Kazakhstan such as drilling and major repairs, testing, land construction, lying of the main pipeline, processing materials, etc.
The full completion of the gas pipeline along the entire line allows connecting the western part of Kazakhstan, with rich gas resources, to a very populated southern part of Kazakhstan, which means that half of the country's population will finally have access to natural gas. At the same time, along with the opening of the second channel for gas transfer along the Central Asia-China route, this is of great importance for ensuring the energy security of China and Kazakhstan.[ Relations between Kazakhstan and China go to a new level -
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